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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
a radio/electrical/radar signal
▪ A transmitter connected to the door bell sends radio signals to a portable receiver.
an electrical storm (=one with lightning)
▪ Power supplies have been affected by severe electrical storms in some parts of the country.
electrical goods
▪ Today's shoppers are spending more money on mobile phones and electrical goods than on clothing.
electrical properties
▪ Each type of cell has distinct electrical properties.
electrical repairs
▪ Never attempt electrical repairs without unplugging the appliance.
electrical storm
electrical/electronic equipment
▪ The store sells a wide range of electrical equipment.
electrical/gas appliance
mechanical/electrical/software etc engineer
▪ In experiments with rats, increased electrical activity was recorded in the satiety centre of the brain during chewing and swallowing.
▪ George has recorded the electrical activity of individual neurons in the temporal cortex during the three-slide show.
▪ The Doctor had mentioned ionization when they'd first entered the Operations Room; ionization caused by electrical activity.
▪ It is also known that, in some central nervous system neurones, second messengers especially cyclic AMPcontrol membrane electrical activity.
▪ Recording the electrical activity of single brain cells in mammals only became a viable proposition in the 1950s.
▪ In this study, the electrical activity remained the same no matter how many times the sound was heard.
▪ Second, their brain functions, as measured by electrical activity and high-tech scanning, are dissimilar.
▪ It is easier to observe and measure electrical activity than it is to understand the chemical properties.
▪ The voltage is usually 220v and we recommend you take a universal plug adapter for electrical appliances.
▪ The panels or arrays are used to run electrical appliances or systems and are connected to batteries to store surplus power.
▪ His new job is to make sure lights and electrical appliances are switched off.
▪ Much the same applied to new refrigerators and electrical appliances.
▪ No electrical appliances in the bathroom!
▪ All the electrical appliances are by Siemens.
▪ Systems of this type have been seen in beer production, cigarette manufacture, electrical appliances and soap manufacture.
▪ As house sales have slumped, so has spending on department-store specialities like furniture, carpets and electrical appliances.
▪ Even physics does not understand the nature of an electron and electrical charge.
▪ The electrical charge used by neurons is carried by ions-those electrically charged atoms mentioned previously.
▪ The mass of the proton is 1836 times that of an electron, yet their electrical charges equate.
▪ He picks up sensations, like electrical charges, from the hard inner walls that contain him.
▪ The proton has positive electrical charge, the neutron has none.
▪ These channels let in a flood of even more positive ions, which obliterates the electrical charge at that spot.
▪ Such electrical charges are involved in the transport of materials across cell membranes, and in the conduction of nerve impulses.
▪ Instead of batteries, it is powered by a capacitor which stores an electrical charge good for about an hour of ringing.
▪ The system we consider is the electrical circuit shown in Fig. 24.5.
▪ This is a truth dependent on the situation as it was - there was no adhoc electrical circuit and so on.
▪ All the electrical circuits and computer systems are thoroughly checked, along with the guidance systems and the life-support components.
▪ A report is awaited on the entire electrical circuit and plans to improve sound amplification are in hand.
▪ Unfortunately, the candle had untoward consequences: it ignited the plastic and started a small fire in the electrical circuits.
▪ Essential electrical circuits have no back-up.
▪ Torture King places a circular fluorescent light bulb on his head and touches an open electrical circuit.
▪ Consider the variety of symbolic representations in the following: electrical circuit diagrams map of the London Underground medieval picture maps.
▪ The electrical components should be double insulated for maximum safety and the outer casing made from an ultra violet stabilised material.
▪ If he was idiosyncratic, it was because of his determination to probe the possible electrical component of any problem.
▪ The Warrington-based electrical components group announced £7.34m profits for the year to March 31, compared with £3.68m for the previous year.
▪ It used a spring-loaded starter and had no electrical components.
▪ Mechanical expertise and mechanical and electrical components, including bogies, will come from Adtranz.
▪ The nitric acid assures good electrical conductivity.
▪ Any change in the number of ions present will cause a change in the electrical conductivity of the solution.
▪ When pressure is applied to an electrolyte-saturated rock, it reduces the rock's electrical conductivity.
▪ Researchers from the Desert Research Institute in Nevada found that electrical conductivity in the ice core fluctuated widely over less than five years.
▪ It seems, therefore, that sample pore-space or matrix properties can not account for the different trends in electrical conductivity.
▪ All electrical conductivity measurements were taken after any transient changes in the pore structure had occurred.
▪ An example of research with specific objectives might have been the measurement of the electrical conductivity of insulators like germanium.
▪ Just down the road at Shalford, electrical contractor Schupke collapsed with debts of £100,000 and the loss of 21 jobs.
▪ A normal electrical control activity frequency was present in three patients, one with a proven neuropathy and two with undefined pathology.
▪ He found sweeping the floor too boring and manoeuvred himself into a role making electrical control panels.
▪ We were unable to explore systematically the electrical control activity in the postprandial state because of the patients intolerance to food.
▪ Fasting gastric electrical control activity was recorded and analysed using a modification of the method described by Van der Schee etal.
▪ Now a third will be provided with this facility by the addition of an electrical control panel.
▪ During magnetic storms the intense electrical currents that f ow in the upper atmosphere heat the air, causing it to expand.
▪ From a mail-order house she ordered a battery-operated galvanic device which applied the stimulation of low-voltage electrical current to his paralyzed limbs.
▪ When electrical currents flow they produce magnetic fields and so it is possible that these two therapies amount to the same thing.
▪ It's a unique beauty treatment that uses thermal clay and electrical currents to combat cellulite.
▪ Due to the radio waves which this equipment gives off, an electrical current is induced into the water.
▪ What had happened was that the passage of electrical current created huge magnetic forces which constricted the tube.
▪ The radio waves may come not only from transmitters but power supplies, motors or other electrical devices.
▪ It's either a mechanical or electrical device.
▪ An electrical device would have to be totally sealed against sea-water.
▪ Such gases, mixed with water vapour, were subjected to electrical discharge and ultraviolet light.
▪ Ultraviolet radiation could do the same job as the electrical discharge in their laboratory.
▪ The deep rumbling beneath their feet abruptly stopped, and the electrical discharges faded away.
▪ The technical officer could not fail to be conscious of the lethal potential of an electrical discharge from the platform.
▪ Tiny electrical discharges zipped and buzzed about the hull as the fragile air was catalysed around them.
▪ And that electrical energy also affects human beings.
▪ The most obvious source of the necessary electrical energy would be solar panels set out on the lunar surface.
▪ Some systems concentrate and focus waves, which increases their height and their potential for conversion to electrical energy.
▪ Its products also absorb and divert electrical energy.
▪ Capital cost is nearly £7 for every watt of electrical energy to be produced by solar radiation.
▪ To liquefy them for storage in propellant tanks, a considerable amount of electrical energy must be expended to run refrigeration equipment.
▪ These allow a store of chemical energy to be converted to electrical energy as required.
▪ This occurs as the result of toxins that form as mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy.
▪ I became 110 Women in Engineering an electrical engineer, by the way, because I was terrified of machines.
▪ Her husband was an electrical engineer who wanted only to be a poet.
▪ Powersafe has a UK-wide network of branches and its team of electrical engineers has undergone six months of specialist training.
▪ Simeon still insisted, against all plausibility, that he would graduate from City as an electrical engineer.
▪ He dresses and acts more like a 36-year-old electrical engineer.
▪ Gary was an electrical engineer for a defense contractor in the Washington area.
▪ Now he was thinking about becoming a mechanical or electrical engineer.
▪ Cambridge, besides its university, has much electrical engineering, especially for radios, television sets and computers.
▪ Constructed to an exceptionally high specification and standard, they have associated mechanical and electrical engineering services.
▪ From subsequent events, it would appear that Mr. Marriott was given an appointment in electrical engineering.
▪ On his return three years later he was appointed director of electrical engineering at the Admiralty, Bath.
▪ He mentioned oil, chemicals, engineering and electrical engineering, all of which had made solid progress.
▪ Iron and steel and shipbuilding are good examples of the former and motor vehicles and electrical engineering equipment of the latter.
▪ He graduated with a certificate of electrical engineering in 1915.
▪ There were 37 attempted and full burglaries and once more hi-fi and electrical equipment has been top of the burglars' list.
▪ He has been in the business for about 14 years and follows aerospace and electrical equipment makers.
▪ Break in: Burglars have stolen electrical equipment and jewellery worth £1,500 from a house in Cedar Road, Darlington.
▪ Money center banks, telephone and drug issues gained, while communications equipment, beverage and electrical equipment shares sank.
▪ The fire, at Cragside, was in a first floor bedroom and was believed to be caused by electrical equipment overheating.
▪ Take electrical equipment maker Shinmei Electric, which makes switches for use in pagers and floppy disk drives.
▪ In March new electrical equipment was ordered from B.T-H. for these cars and new trucks were considered, but turned down.
▪ But be prepared and able to speak without it just in case it is not available or an electrical fault develops.
▪ An electrical fault is believed to have been the cause.
▪ The cause has been described as an electrical fault.
▪ On the other hand it could have been an electrical fault ... he's waiting for the results of the investigation.
▪ Have a residual current device fitted to protect the property from the risk of fire started by an electrical fault.
▪ The blaze was caused by an electrical fault.
▪ Cleveland police said it was believed an electrical fault started the fire in a ground-floor flat.
▪ More recently, stories have circulated that mechanical or electrical faults in factories are due to gremlins taking over the working of machines.
▪ In laboratory experiments he has shown that the electrical field of the human entity can affect the contents of the vapour.
▪ For all his systematic innovative accomplishments, Edison worked only in the electrical field.
▪ Most molecules move when placed in an electrical field.
▪ It's worth / remember, as well as safeguard your house investing in one with an / from electrical fires.
▪ The electrical generator is about 98% efficient.
▪ Deathtraps: Coroner's warning over second hand electrical goods.
▪ Another person I knew started a retail business, selling electrical goods, in a small rented shop.
▪ The effective rate of protection for steel, vehicles and electrical goods, however, went much higher, up to 300 percent.
▪ You can shop for bargains in clothes, cameras and electrical goods in modern malls.
▪ Retail turnover was up 28 percent, and in some branches, such as vehicles and electrical goods, by more than half.
▪ Fireplaces, interior doors and electrical goods have been taken from the new houses at Woodbrook, off the lower Galliagh Road.
▪ Trading Standards officers say the case tragically illustrates the dangers of buying second hand electrical goods.
▪ In nervous communication, messages are carried as electrical impulses in nerve fibres.
▪ I felt as though I was stuck in this network or maze of electrical impulses.
▪ My face seemed to be made up of a mass of needles or spikes or electrical impulses.
▪ Here 130 million light-sensitive rods and cones cause photochemical reactions which transform the light into electrical impulses.
▪ All living organisms produce electrical impulses on an infinitesimal scale.
▪ In electronics, a spiral is used to convert radio waves into electrical impulses.
▪ It also sends electrical impulses into this poor mutt's brains to control its actions.
▪ This is then amplified by photomultiplier tubes and converted into electrical impulses.
▪ Being mainstream consumer items, them at any electrical outlet or airport duty free.
▪ The only irritating feature was the placement of electrical outlets in the kitchen.
▪ Patients can wear a battery pack or plug into an electrical outlet to recharge the heart's battery.
▪ Trunks have electrical outlets, telephone hookups and vents for air circulation.
▪ Way in the back was a fake electrical outlet through which people passed Miguel the money.
▪ The phones use an electrical outlet for power, but they also work on standard, 12-volt batteries.
▪ He switched on his torch - there was, of course, no electrical power left.
▪ A carbon dioxide electrolysis unit requires both thermal and electrical power; indeed, it needs more thermal than electrical power.
▪ However, in order to do that a great deal of electrical power is required.
▪ A carbon dioxide electrolysis unit requires both thermal and electrical power; indeed, it needs more thermal than electrical power.
▪ Thus, under correct termination, no electrical power is fed into these filters over the attenuation bands of frequencies.
▪ I felt a surge of electrical power.
▪ After an explosion had deprived the crew of electrical power and oxygen there was a very real chance that they would die.
▪ The same device, run backwards, reacts hydrogen and oxygen together to make water and generate electrical power.
▪ An effective alarm Can you help me with an electrical problem?
▪ This was another flight that ended with electrical problems on board and the pilot having to fly the craft through re-entry manually.
▪ The electrical problem arises from the finite time it takes a signal to travel across a chip.
▪ The brief period of electrical stimulation of the hippocampal cells had seemingly permanently altered their electrical properties.
▪ This provides a bursary for Simon Johnson to study the fundamental, physical and electrical properties of magnesium.
▪ The idea behind the ion motor is to make use of the electrical properties of ionized atoms.
▪ Here, the electrical properties of cells must have become important.
▪ The US$373,000,000 Tethered Satellite System was designed to be pulled through space to investigate the electrical properties of the upper atmosphere.
▪ This is the first issue in a series which will include all of Elgar's electrical recordings.
▪ One, however, qualified for the distinction of making the first electrical recording to be sold to the public.
▪ A wide range of electrical recording techniques are currently available, although not all are suitable for studying behavioural processes.
▪ For details of plant material, growth conditions and electrical recording methods, see ref. 9.
▪ Discount electrical retailers are expected to spend about IR£5m on advertising this year.
▪ The Smiths Door Chime Kit costs about £10 from electrical retailers.
▪ Alternatively, you could use a three pin plug with a built-in thermostat, available from electrical retailers.
▪ Next door was an electrical shop, its window totally bare except for a single television.
▪ It's an electrical shop, with a shining chrome display of toasters, coffee-pots, and electric carving-knives.
▪ Selling price is around £30, from Argos, Texas, other major chain and d-i-y stores, and specialist electrical shops.
▪ Available from electrical shops nationwide it costs £49.99.
▪ Time allowed 00:27 Read in studio Thieves have broken into an electrical shop and stolen several sophisticated radio scanners.
▪ This unit converts light pulses into electrical signals and vice-versa.
▪ The traffic of ions into and out of neurons underlies their capacity to generate and transmit electrical signals.
▪ We conclude that the systemic response is caused by an electrical signal propagating through the plant.
▪ Images could be converted from light or other radiation to an analog electrical signal.
▪ In these, messages are carried as flashes of light rather than electrical signals so there is no possibility of interference.
▪ Radio antennas receive radio waves and change them into electrical signals which are then turned into sound by the speakers.
▪ However, we will from time to time assume that we are discussing electronic computers, implemented by the routing and gating of electrical signals.
▪ No electrical signal, whether down a wire or through the ether, appears able to travel faster than light.
▪ The brief period of electrical stimulation of the hippocampal cells had seemingly permanently altered their electrical properties.
▪ Near the boundary, the electrical stimulation may spread enough to evoke both movements.
▪ Do etal measured increases in excitatory aminoacids by push-pull cannulation in anesthetised human beings undergoing electrical stimulation.
▪ The hypothalamus is also a major site where electrical stimulation seems to produce quite pleasurable feelings.
▪ In most cases they suggest that language extends well beyond the naming sites defined by electrical stimulation.
▪ The author also frequently uses transcutaneous electrical stimulation.
▪ Some forms of this treatment include self-administered electrical stimulation.
▪ There are fireballs and electrical storms, or some sort of celestial display.
▪ Less rain meant less chance of a signal being washed out and less possibility of interference from an electrical storm.
▪ The seas were hot, volcanoes spouted ash and lava, and electrical storms crackled across the skies.
▪ But when electrical storms roll in, nothing is normal.
▪ I do believe the Weather Bureau has logged down that that Sunday electrical storms were hit-and-running these parts.
▪ If the pump or cable develop a fault, the electrical supply is immediately cut off.
▪ They were supposed to shop for wood while Gary and I looked for the electrical supplies.
▪ The electrical supply would be cut, all telephone lines would be down, airstrips closed.
▪ Other services include general cargo handling, marine fuel product storage and wholesale electrical supplies.
▪ Fittings should be removed and the body dismantled as far as possible including disconnecting from gas or electrical supply if possible.
▪ As a torrent gushed inside, it knocked out much of her electrical system.
▪ The plumbing system and electrical system are, in my judgment, substandard.
▪ Recently, the electrical system burnt out and now requires rewiring.
▪ Voters approved two bond measures to pay for the seismic retrofit, interior renovations and modernizing the electrical systems.
▪ This time, the electrical system was dead when Lammers tried to restart the engine.
▪ In some cases, these irregularities are described as a type of short-circuit in the hearts electrical system.
▪ Ian Somerville did the electrical system.
▪ A living organism can therefore be regarded as an extremely intricate electrical system.
▪ An electrical wire is inserted into the heart, which is then stimulated electronically and the reaction is studied.
▪ Automobile manufacturing is one of the top sources of demand for copper, after construction and electrical wire.
▪ It is probable that one of the electrical wires had had its insulation damaged.
▪ The wiry Estrada flashes a partially capped smile as she gratefully recalls her first maquila job twisting electrical wires with latex-tipped fingers.
▪ Always check for electrical wires and eater pipes with a pipe and cable detector before drilling walls, floors and ceilings.
▪ They live under high-voltage electrical wire.
▪ Tom left them, twined about with electrical wires, to set up their speakers and woofers and tweeters.
▪ Associates was looking for ways to expand its business of making a Teflon-coated electrical wire.
▪ They also conceal electrical wiring, filter tubes, and any other clutter behind the tank.
▪ Replacement of the electrical wiring and heating systems, and refurbishment of the lift, were completed on time.
▪ What is the condition of the electrical wiring?
▪ He was reflecting, perhaps, that this had been an easier job than the electrical wiring.
▪ Like the telephone system, or the electrical wiring.
▪ Also, like any other electrical wiring, especially if it is run underground, coaxial cable can be affected by damp.
▪ Philip was working on the electrical wiring of the top floor with the easy-paced contemplative manner of a workman.
▪ Ensure that any electrical wiring is not hidden beneath the insulation.
▪ The manufacturer will be able to provide you with a plan, an estimate and details of building and electrical work required.
▪ Inspectors generally specialize in one particular type of construction work or construction trade, such as electrical work or plumbing.
▪ Vessel entries began on Sunday, 15 August, for essential electrical work.
▪ For instance, one person may estimate only electrical work, whereas another may concentrate on excavation, concrete, and forms.
▪ The dual reactor shutdown commenced on 8 August for essential electrical work.
▪ To complete the whole conservatory package Molloy provide any plumbing, electrical work and landscaping required.
▪ He retired early from electrical work because of a slipped disc.
electrical equipment
▪ an electrical technician
▪ The changing magnetic fields create an electrical current.
▪ Ensure that any electrical wiring is not hidden beneath the insulation.
▪ Giant electrical transmission towers loom over some of the bare lots.
▪ He picks up sensations, like electrical charges, from the hard inner walls that contain him.
▪ He scarcely heard her soft voice going on about paraffin heaters and electrical wall fans.
▪ Her hair is short, gingery and electrical.
▪ They live under high-voltage electrical wire.
▪ Think of our public systems as an infrastructure-like sewers, water pipes, and electrical lines-and the idea of transparency becomes clear.
▪ We know that both cars suffered from electrical faults but as yet we have not identified them.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Electric \E*lec"tric\ ([-e]*l[e^]k"tr[i^]k), Electrical \E*lec"tric*al\ ([-e]*l[e^]k"tr[i^]*kal), a. [L. electrum amber, a mixed metal, Gr. 'h`lektron; akin to 'hle`ktwr the beaming sun, cf. Skr. arc to beam, shine: cf. F. ['e]lectrique. The name came from the production of electricity by the friction of amber.]

  1. Pertaining to electricity; consisting of, containing, derived from, or produced by, electricity; as, electric power or virtue; an electric jar; electric effects; an electric spark; an electric charge; an electric current; an electrical engineer.

  2. Capable of occasioning the phenomena of electricity; as, an electric or electrical machine or substance; an electric generator.

  3. Electrifying; thrilling; magnetic. ``Electric Pindar.''
    --Mrs. Browning.

  4. powered by electricity; as, electrical appliances; an electric toothbrush; an electric automobile.

    Electric atmosphere, or Electric aura. See under Aura.

    Electrical battery. See Battery.

    Electrical brush. See under Brush.

    Electric cable. See Telegraph cable, under Telegraph.

    Electric candle. See under Candle.

    Electric cat (Zo["o]l.), one of three or more large species of African catfish of the genus Malapterurus (esp. M. electricus of the Nile). They have a large electrical organ and are able to give powerful shocks; -- called also sheathfish.

    Electric clock. See under Clock, and see Electro-chronograph.

    Electric current, a current or stream of electricity traversing a closed circuit formed of conducting substances, or passing by means of conductors from one body to another which is in a different electrical state.

    Electric eel, or Electrical eel (Zo["o]l.), a South American eel-like fresh-water fish of the genus Gymnotus ( G. electricus), from two to five feet in length, capable of giving a violent electric shock. See Gymnotus.

    Electrical fish (Zo["o]l.), any fish which has an electrical organ by means of which it can give an electrical shock. The best known kinds are the torpedo, the gymnotus, or electrical eel, and the electric cat. See Torpedo, and Gymnotus.

    Electric fluid, the supposed matter of electricity; lightning. [archaic]

    Electrical image (Elec.), a collection of electrical points regarded as forming, by an analogy with optical phenomena, an image of certain other electrical points, and used in the solution of electrical problems.
    --Sir W. Thomson.

    Electric machine, or Electrical machine, an apparatus for generating, collecting, or exciting, electricity, as by friction.

    Electric motor. See Electro-motor, 2.

    Electric osmose. (Physics) See under Osmose.

    Electric pen, a hand pen for making perforated stencils for multiplying writings. It has a puncturing needle driven at great speed by a very small magneto-electric engine on the penhandle.

    Electric railway, a railway in which the machinery for moving the cars is driven by an electric current.

    Electric ray (Zo["o]l.), the torpedo.

    Electric telegraph. See Telegraph.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1630s, "giving off electricity when rubbed," from electric + -al (1). Meaning "relating to electricity, run by electricity" is from 1746. Related: Electrically.


a. Related to electricity (or electronics) n. An electrical engineer.

  1. adj. relating to or concerned with electricity; "an electrical engineer"; "electrical and mechanical engineering industries"

  2. using or providing or producing or transmitting or operated by electricity; "electric current"; "electric wiring"; "electrical appliances"; "an electrical storm" [syn: electric]


Usage examples of "electrical".

Dasslerond yelled at him, and she seemed even more fierce than usual, for her golden hair was all aflutter from the tingling of his electrical burst.

This produces a greater suction in the right-hand side of the mercury tube, which draws the mercury up on that side and down on the other, until the proper electrical contact is broken and the ailerons are returned to neutral position.

So he would never have seen that out of the twenty-seven thousand eight hundred and forty-six starships which had come to Norfolk, twenty-two of them experienced an alarming variety of severe mechanical and electrical malfunctions as they departed for their home planets.

He sniffed the air, the scent a mixture of diesel oil and diesel exhaust from the emergency generator, ozone from the electrical equipment, cooking oil, lubricating oils, and amines from the atmospheric control equipment.

The electrical smell of the ship came into his nostrils, a brew of cooking oil, ozone, diesel fuel, cleaning solution, and amines, the perfume of it filling him with nostalgia.

Its authors, Heinz van Foerster, Patricia Mora and Lawrence Amiot, were members of the staff of the department of electrical engineering at the University of Illinois, Urbana.

Not only in experience of electrical engineering but also in native practical ability they were eclipsed by their arachnoid partners.

A countershock to her heart eliminated the fibrillation but resulted in asystole, meaning there was no electrical activity or beat whatsoever.

Gator stood by the half-visible airman, talking to her as she rummaged around in the guts of the hydraulics system, electrical lines, and avionics that controlled the Tomcat.

In this system it is possible to replace the tactile, behavioural stimulus by its neurophysiological analogue, that is, by direct electrical stimulation of the sensory nerve inputs.

By the mid-1970s, it was clear that neither sensory inputs nor motor outputs had properties which corresponded to the behavioural habituation, as neither showed such decrements in electrical response.

Nerve cell activity is electrical, and biologically generated current flows through the brain in patterns as simultaneously regular and varied as the waves of the sea.

Whether he was analyzing the latest digital microchips or the clunky circuits found in old televisions, he found that all the components were just a few electrical steps from one another, yet they were much more clustered than they would have been in an equivalent random circuit, thanks to the modular design favored by engineering practice.

The port steam system was useless with the condenser isolated from the seawater flooding, which left one coolant loop and one steam generator to power one electrical turbine and one main engine.

The institute was a thoroughly modern and up-to-date facility, in keeping with the modern and up-to-date subjects taught within its walls: electricity and electronics, mechanics, plumbing, recycling and reclamation, construction, carpentry, accounting and bookkeeping, secretarial skills, data recording, computer programming and repair, cybernation maintenance, aeronautics, solar-cell construction, electrical generating, motion-picture projection, camera operation, audio recording, hydrogen-fusion operation, power broadcasting, electrical space propulsion, satellite construction and repair, telemetry, and many more.