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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
direct discourse
indirect discourse
▪ There are two points worth noting about this fragment of conversational discourse.
▪ There are informal ways of expressing the topic, even in conversational discourse.
▪ So, it is a myth that conversational discourse is inevitably symmetrical.
▪ How does the discourse analyst decide which discourse subjects to include in the presupposition pool for a particular piece of conversational discourse?
▪ Our argument for the importance of considering individual speaker's topics in conversational discourse would consequently be weaker.
▪ We shall examine an extract from conversational discourse containing a longish paratone which illustrates the features just described.
▪ There is an assumption that conversational discourse is symmetrical and logical.
▪ What we have is a critical discourse, constituting the core of the student's studies.
▪ Clearly they are symptomatic of investments in different kinds of discourse.
▪ Why should not the validity of different traditions of discourse simply be allowed to coexist?
▪ Henriques etal.'s binary model of power and its absence is flexible enough to apply to many different kinds of discourses.
▪ Many textbooks do show awareness of the need to deal with different discourse types, but few confront the issue of identification.
▪ He provides a careful analysis of the relationship between the functional and structural characteristics of different types of discourse.
▪ It also presupposes the possibility of meaningful references to different topics of discourse.
▪ In dominant discourses of gender, activity tends to be associated with masculinity, and passivity with femininity.
▪ Some western feminists, too, are concerned about psychological method's strong affiliations to dominant discourses of gender.
▪ This articulation draws on dominant discourses of children which position them in constant relationship to both their and society's futures.
▪ But here it reveals a concept of women very close to that found in dominant discourses of femininity.
▪ Contradictory discourses are contained and framed by a dominant discourse.
▪ He suggests that in all cases contradictory discourses are neutralised by the dominant, privileged discourse.
▪ This interest in lesbianism preserves the emphasis dominant discourses of femininity place on women's sexuality.
▪ Do men lose as well as gain from dominant discourses of gender?
▪ The contradictory demands of justifying and criticizing national prejudice can be seen in the everyday discourse of racism.
▪ In everyday economic discourse, nothing is more frequently taken as an index of economic growth than the volume of capital formation.
▪ Its triumph in everyday discourse is the demand for rational or empirical justification.
▪ Lawyer B, however, tried to resolve the issue in the terms of the presenting, everyday, discourse.
▪ The passage from esoteric scientific theory into everyday discourse describes the prototype of objectification.
▪ Client purchasers require that this be translated back into everyday discourse.
▪ In the first case he offered a solution in the terms of everyday discourse.
▪ Clients bring many issues to the solicitor, expressed and constituted in terms of a variety of everyday discourses.
▪ It is as if literature were perhaps necessarily less susceptible to the temptations of logocentrism than other forms of discourse.
▪ Feminist psychologists tend not to deal with these other discourses, except by adopting numerical strategies.
▪ Psychology, like other discourses, associates subjectivity with femininity, and objectivity with masculinity.
▪ My account of deixis is such that the methodology could be applied to other kinds of discourse, both literary and non-literary.
▪ Sermons on the Card and other discourses by Hugh Latimer.
▪ The boundary between conversation and other discourse types is a fuzzy one, and there are many intermediate cases.
▪ The context of anthropology is that of a discourse that attempts to generalize and encompass other discourses, such as those of myth-telling.
▪ How effective do you consider this means of presentation and how widely could it be applied to other discourse types?
▪ Any consideration of topic involves asking why the speaker said what he said in a particular discourse situation.
▪ This leaves the possibility open of finding new insights into deixis perse as well as into its behaviour within a particular discourse.
▪ The political discourse instead centered on when and whether the two Republicans chasing Dole might withdraw.
▪ Chapter 2 attempts to demonstrate the specific appeal of formal labourism by examining the construction of political discourses around the working class.
▪ First, there is the general point that political discourse must be understood in its argumentative context.
▪ This whole extravaganza is demeaning, debasing and deeply damaging to what should be serious political discourse, the protesters complain.
▪ Their words infuse the air Britain breathes, serving just three press magnates whose pernicious influence corrodes all political discourse.
▪ Such accounts provide detailed and wide-ranging analyses of the psychological and related discourses around these objects.
▪ Woman-centred psychology, like egalitarian feminist psychology, needs to address theory if it is really to change psychological discourses of gender.
▪ Every psychologist is an object of psychological discourse, as well as an agent of it.
▪ I have already discussed the difficulties the concept presents in psychological discourse.
▪ This brings them to explore the theoretical level of psychological discourse.
▪ But cognitive theories' dominance within psychological discourse induces many feminists to recapitulate these theories, overlooking their subtler gender biases.
▪ This chapter will argue that an important aspect of such initiatives is their address to the ambiguous significatory structures of psychological discourse.
▪ Above all, I remember the overwhelming sense of defeatism and moral chaos that pervaded public discourse.
▪ Rarely has a term of public discourse gone so directly from obscurity to meaninglessness without any intervening period of coherence.
▪ The degradation of public discourse, the spread of cynicism, makes our collective life less civilised.
▪ Within a couple of years, the public discourse changed.
▪ This surely must count as significant participation in public discourse.
▪ It is a way of making connections within a public discourse.
▪ Hamann's political critique takes special aim at Kant's distinction between public and private discourse.
▪ As a result, spoken discourse comes to be regarded as more honest and truthful.
▪ In spoken discourse, there is not the visual prompt of paragraph-initial line indentation to indicate a division in the discourse structure.
▪ Some of the features we have described as marking paratone boundaries in spoken discourse can, of course, have other functions.
▪ Verb-phrase anaphora occurs when a verb-phrase depends for its interpretation on another verb-phrase occurring earlier in the spoken or written discourse.
▪ Sometimes, particularly in some types of written discourse, we have only a very general or limited knowledge.
▪ Psychology is predominantly a written discourse, conducted through the publication of books and papers.
▪ This is a type which occurs throughout written discourse.
▪ After all, written discourse is divided into paragraphs whose boundaries are marked by indentations.
▪ Topic-shifts in written discourse then could be identified with the beginning of each new paragraph.
▪ Verb-phrase anaphora occurs when a verb-phrase depends for its interpretation on another verb-phrase occurring earlier in the spoken or written discourse.
▪ Some of the procedures of discourse analysis will make for a more profound examination of this process.
▪ At the beginning of the article he observed that there were two possible directions for discourse analysis.
▪ The more recent studies of discourse analysis have captured the tones which people use to talk of others.
▪ We have, then, two approaches to language: sentence linguistics and discourse analysis.
▪ For discourse analysis, the most important idea to come out of the field of Artificial Intelligence is that of knowledge schemata.
▪ Recent linguistic work on characterisation has used the principles and analytical techniques of pragmatics and discourse analysis to considerable effect.
▪ Thus, in discourse analysis, reference is treated as an action on the part of the speaker / writer.
▪ We are, after all, performing a descriptive and not a prescriptive exercise when we undertake discourse analysis.
▪ It is exactly this latter view of the nature of reference which the discourse analyst has to appeal to.
▪ In trying to determine such regularities, the discourse analyst will typically adopt the traditional methodology of descriptive linguistics.
▪ The discourse analyst attempts to discover regularities in his data and to describe them.
▪ Such functions are examples of intonation's discourse function.
▪ We now turn to the second main area of intonational discourse function, the regulation of conversational behaviour.
▪ It is good to practise discourse structure consciously as well.
▪ In spoken discourse, there is not the visual prompt of paragraph-initial line indentation to indicate a division in the discourse structure.
▪ This involves information about syntax, semantics, discourse structure, pragmatics and knowledge of the world.
▪ We shall return to this point in the discussion of further details of discourse structure in Chapter 4.
▪ Would it be possible to give choices of title which indicate discourse type as well?
▪ As Task 55 suggests, another way in which discourse type can be recognized is by title.
▪ The boundary between conversation and other discourse types is a fuzzy one, and there are many intermediate cases.
▪ Here again, there are many quite ordinary terms for the internal parts of discourse types.
▪ There are, moreover, infelicitous instances of any discourse type.
▪ How effective do you consider this means of presentation and how widely could it be applied to other discourse types?
▪ Other discourse types do not have such overtly marked units; but they may also be susceptible to the same representation.
▪ Rational discourse on public policy is vital to a democracy.
▪ the restraints of diplomatic discourse
▪ Chapter 2 attempts to demonstrate the specific appeal of formal labourism by examining the construction of political discourses around the working class.
▪ However exciting his paper, his thesis seemed in danger of crumbling if it were reworked into a conventional historical discourse.
▪ In many cases, the conventions of academic discourse force researchers to make these assumptions even more explicit and specific.
▪ Legal discourse and scientific discourse often sacrifice the maxim of quantity to the maxim of quality.
▪ Simply combining methods associated with femininity and masculinity, does not challenge the discourses of gender which support these associations.
▪ The prototype of non-reciprocal discourse is a book by a dead author.
▪ Without tampering with the deviant sentence itself, we can investigate the effects of placing it in variously elaborated discourse contexts.
▪ He went on to discourse at length on the nature of fat.
▪ Iris was discoursing with animation, her hands describing sweeping patterns in the air, her whole attention focused on her subject.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Discourse \Dis*course"\, n. [L. discursus a running to and fro, discourse, fr. discurrere, discursum, to run to and fro, to discourse; dis- + currere to run: cf. F. discours. See Course.]

  1. The power of the mind to reason or infer by running, as it were, from one fact or reason to another, and deriving a conclusion; an exercise or act of this power; reasoning; range of reasoning faculty. [Obs.]

    Difficult, strange, and harsh to the discourses of natural reason.

    Sure he that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason To fust in us unused.

  2. Conversation; talk.

    In their discourses after supper.

    Filling the head with variety of thoughts, and the mouth with copious discourse.

  3. The art and manner of speaking and conversing.

    Of excellent breeding, admirable discourse.

  4. Consecutive speech, either written or unwritten, on a given line of thought; speech; treatise; dissertation; sermon, etc.; as, the preacher gave us a long discourse on duty.

  5. Dealing; transaction. [Obs.]

    Good Captain Bessus, tell us the discourse Betwixt Tigranes and our king, and how We got the victory.
    --Beau. & Fl.


Discourse \Dis*course"\, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Discoursed; p. pr. & vb. n. Discoursing.]

  1. To exercise reason; to employ the mind in judging and inferring; to reason. [Obs.] ``Have sense or can discourse.''

  2. To express one's self in oral discourse; to expose one's views; to talk in a continuous or formal manner; to hold forth; to speak; to converse.

    Bid me discourse, I will enchant thine ear.

  3. To relate something; to tell.

  4. To treat of something in writing and formally.


Discourse \Dis*course"\, v. t.

  1. To treat of; to expose or set forth in language. [Obs.]

    The life of William Tyndale . . . is sufficiently and at large discoursed in the book.

  2. To utter or give forth; to speak.

    It will discourse most eloquent music.

  3. To talk to; to confer with. [Obs.]

    I have spoken to my brother, who is the patron, to discourse the minister about it.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

late 14c., "process of understanding, reasoning, thought," from French discours, from Latin discursus "a running about," in Late Latin "conversation," from past participle stem of discurrere "run about," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + currere "to run" (see current (adj.)). Sense of "formal speech or writing" is first recorded 1580s.


1540s, from discourse (n.). Related: Discoursed; discoursing.\n


n. 1 (context uncountable archaic English) Verbal exchange, conversation. 2 (context uncountable English) expression in words, either speech or writing. vb. 1 (context intransitive English) To engage in discussion or conversation; to converse. 2 (context intransitive English) To write or speak formally and at length. 3 (context obsolete transitive English) To debate. 4 To exercise reason; to employ the mind in judging and inferring; to reason.

  1. n. extended verbal expression in speech or writing

  2. an address of a religious nature (usually delivered during a church service) [syn: sermon, preaching]

  3. an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic; "the book contains an excellent discussion of modal logic"; "his treatment of the race question is badly biased" [syn: discussion, treatment]

  4. v. to consider or examine in speech or writing; "The article covered all the different aspects of this question"; "The class discussed Dante's `Inferno'" [syn: talk about, discuss]

  5. carry on a conversation [syn: converse]

  6. talk or hold forth formally about a topic; "The speaker dissertated about the social politics in 18th century England" [syn: dissertate]

Discourse (disambiguation)

Discourse is a use of written or spoken communication.

Discourse or discourses may also refer to:


Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications such as:

  • In semantics and discourse analysis: Discourse is a conceptual generalization of conversation within each modality and context of communication.
  • The totality of codified language (vocabulary) used in a given field of intellectual enquiry and of social practice, such as legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse, et cetera.
  • In the work of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes "an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements (énoncés)", statements in conversation.

As discourse, an enouncement (statement) is not a unit of semiotic signs, but an abstract construct that allows the semiotic signs to assign meaning, and so communicate specific, repeatable communications to, between, and among objects, subjects, and statements. Therefore, a discourse is composed of semiotic sequences (relations among signs that communicate meaning) between and among objects, subjects, and statements.

The term "discursive formation" conceptually describes the regular communications (written and spoken) that produce such discourses, such conversations. As a philosopher, Michel Foucault applied the discursive formation in the analyses of large bodies of knowledge, such as political economy and natural history.

In the first sense-usage (semantics and discourse analysis), the term discourse is studied in corpus linguistics, the study of language expressed in corpora (samples) of "real world" text. In the second sense (the codified language of a field of enquiry) and in the third sense (a statement, un énoncé), the analysis of a discourse examines and determines the connections among language and structure and agency.

Moreover, because a discourse is a body of text meant to communicate specific data, information, and knowledge, there exist internal relations in the content of a given discourse; likewise, there exist external relations among discourses. As such, a discourse does not exist per se (in itself), but is related to other discourses, by way of inter-discursivity; therefore, in the course of intellectual enquiry, the discourse among researchers features the questions and answers of What is ...? and What is not. ..., conducted according to the meanings (denotation and connotation) of the concepts (statements) used in the given field of enquiry, such as anthropology, ethnography, and sociology; cultural studies and literary theory; the philosophy of science and feminism.

Discourse (software)

Discourse is an open source Internet forum and mailing list management software application founded in 2013 by Jeff Atwood, Robin Ward, and Sam Saffron. Discourse received funding from First Round Capital and Greylock Partners.

From a usability perspective, Discourse breaks with existing forum software by including features recently popularized by large social networks, such as infinite scrolling, live updates, oneboxing, expanding links, and drag and drop attachments. However, the stated goals of the project are social rather than technical, to improve online discussion quality through improved forum software.

The application is written in JavaScript and Ruby on Rails, and is released under the GNU General Public License version 2. PostgreSQL is the supported database management system. It also uses the Ember.js framework .

Usage examples of "discourse".

Discourse and humble Advise for our Gratious Queene Elizabeth, her most Excellent Majestie to peruse and consider, as concerning the needful Reformation of the Vulgar Kalender for the civile yeres and daies accompting, or verifyeng, according to the tyme truely spent.

Discourse and humble Advise for our Gratious Queen Elizabeth, her most Excellent Majestie to peruse and consider, as concerning the needful Reformation of the Vulgar Kalendar for the civile yeres and daies accompting, or verifyeng, according to the tyme trewly spent.

Bishop Alcock, who was learned in all local lore, as well as in all ecclesiastical research, again discoursed on the celestial wonders brought to mother earth, and instanced the example of St.

I was necessitated to preach a discourse on almsgiving, specially for the benefit of our own poor, a thing never before known in the parish.

Highton discourse, Kaliga had deliberately given a direct answer, a great insult among Aristos, but he assumed Jai had neither the savvy nor intelligence to know.

Fakredeen shot a glance at Eva and Baroni, as if to remind them of the tenor of the discourse for which he had prepared them.

We certainly do recognize the need to insist on the creative powers of virtuality, but this Bergsonian discourse is insufficient for us insofar as we also need to insist on the reality of the being created, its ontological weight, and the institutions that structure the world, creating necessity out of contingency.

Nor was the charity of Mahomet confined to the tribe of Koreish, or the precincts of Mecca: on solemn festivals, in the days of pilgrimage, he frequented the Caaba, accosted the strangers of every tribe, and urged, both in private converse and public discourse, the belief and worship of a sole Deity.

The confusion of public and private spheres in the pages of the press is echoed by an equally sinister confusion of literary discourse and the transmission of information, and it is here that Kraus performs the Cerberean function of satire by seeking to protect the imagination from rival and encroaching forms of discourse.

Slender, his face looking almost youthful despite the woolly gray above, casually dressed in a loose robe and sandals, this high councillor of the Southern Coagency had received him like an equal and discoursed easily, affably.

He let it fall open in his hands and a discourse on dactylography faced him.

In the temple of Mecca, three Charegites or enthusiasts discoursed of the disorders of the church and state: they soon agreed, that the deaths of Ali, of Moawiyah, and of his friend Amrou, the viceroy of Egypt, would restore the peace and unity of religion.

Kundera, the strategies by which Soviet discourse imposes its centralization and uniformity on Czech history are those that structuralist and deconstructionist discourses impose upon chosen texts.

Wilson, casting his eyes on Denbigh, whose back was towards him in discourse with Mr.

As I advanced along the bank opposed to them, I was further amazed to hear them discoursing quite equably together, so that it was impossible to say on the face of it whether a catastrophe had occurred, or the great heat of a cloudless summer day had tempted an eccentric couple to seek for coolness in the directest fashion, without absolute disregard to propriety.