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Chal, or shubat , is a Turkic (especially Turkmen and Kazakh) beverage of fermented camel milk, sparkling white with a sour flavor, popular in Central Asia — particularly in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. In Kazakhstan the drink is known as shubat, and is a staple summer food. Due to preparation requirements and perishable nature, chal has proved difficult to export. Agaran (fermented cream) is collected from the surface of chal.

Fermented chal is reputed to possess virucidal and virus inhibiting properties not found in fresh camel or cow milk, both in its liquid and lyophilized form — a characteristic which is (reputedly) unaffected by shelf life.

Chal is typically prepared by first souring camel milk in a skin bag or ceramic jar by adding previously soured milk. For 3–4 days, fresh milk is mixed in; the matured chal will consist of one third to one fifth previously soured milk.

Camel milk will not sour for up to 72 hours at temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F). At 30 °C (86 °F) the milk sours in approximately 8 hours (compared to cow's milk, which sours within 3 hours).

A comparison of the composition of camel milk and camel chal:

Camel milk











non-fat solids






ethyl alcohol


ascorbic acid

5.6 mg%

4.8 mg%

Dornic acidic degrees are used to describe acidity in milk products, with 1 Dornic degree (1°D) is equal to 0.1g of lactic acid per liter. The chal contained Lactobacilli lactic; streptococci and yeast.

Chal may be cultured with lactobacillus casei, streptococcus thermophilus and lactose-fermenting yeasts incubating in inoculated milk for 8 hours at 25 °C (77 °F), and then subsequently for 16 hours at 20 °C (68 °F). Holder pasteurization does not affect the quality of the milk, but pasteurization at higher temperatures ( 85 °C/185 °F) for 5 minutes negatively impacts flavour. Chal made from pure cultures of lactobacillus casei, streptococcus thermophilus and species of torula has markedly less not-fat solids and lactose than the milk from which it is made.

Usage examples of "chal".

Doubtless when Queen Zorana married Clive Elkwood, the strength of the Shields was diluted and diluted again when King Chalmer insisted on marrying a commoner.

I was on as easy terms with him as with the costers and Rommany chals.

No more than a month ago, in the peace of a glade on Chal, their love had quickened their child within her.

Until four weeks ago, he had lived as a virtual hermit on Chal, avoiding everyone except Teilani and a few close friends.

Spock over the past few months, McCoy and Scott had been frequent enough visitors to Chal that she had come to know them well.

Heisenberg, when we came back to Chal, the first thing James did was have that computer link installed.

Later he sat on cushions by the low tables of Chal and fed Teilani as she fed him.

She, and a dozen other Starfleet officers, had been brought to Chal on the U.

She was on the porch of their house with her own closest friends, the other teachers she worked with, and two elderly politicians with whom she had joined forces when she had successfully petitioned the Federation Council to bring Chal into full membership.

Teilani now wore a loose shift of white Chal cotton, swathed in a gauzy white 145 wrap shot through with gold that had been a gift from Christine MacDonald and her crew.

That was the day that she had talked Kirk into leaving Chal one final time.

Sovereign ripped through the fabric of space time, trailing a starbow of superluminal photons, streak ing from Chal to QonoS at 2,000 times the speed of light.

Teilani of Chal lay motionless in the medical stasis chamber before her husband.

We thought it would be best for you if you returned to Chal with Teilani and got on with your life.

Project Sign had concerns that Tiberius might be going to Chal, but in all honesty, their chief fear was that he would replace you.