Crossword clues for amphetamine
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
1938, contracted from alphamethyl-phenethylamine.
n. 1 (context organic compound proper English) The racemic freebase of amphetamine, the chemical with an IUPAC name of "1-phenylpropan-2-amine"; equal parts of the levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine stereoisomers in their pure amine forms. 2 (context informal English) Any mixture of the amphetamine enantiomers, dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine; any chemical that can be described by an enantiomeric ratio of the amphetamine enantiomers. 3 (context informal nonstandard English) Referring to a substituted amphetamine; a member of the amphetamine class of chemicals. 4 (context medicine English) A potent central nervous system stimulant of the phenethylamine chemical class that is used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy.
Amphetamine (contracted from ) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers, levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine, in their pure amine forms. However, the term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. Historically, it has been used to treat nasal congestion and depression. Amphetamine is also used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant. It is a prescription drug in many countries, and unauthorized possession and distribution of amphetamine are often tightly controlled due to the significant health risks associated with recreational use.
The first pharmaceutical amphetamine was Benzedrine, a brand which was used to treat a variety of conditions. Currently, pharmaceutical amphetamine is prescribed as racemic amphetamine, Adderall, dextroamphetamine, or the inactive prodrug lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamine, through activation of a trace amine receptor, increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine.
At therapeutic doses, amphetamine causes emotional and cognitive effects such as euphoria, change in desire for sex, increased wakefulness, and improved cognitive control. It induces physical effects such as decreased reaction time, fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength. Larger doses of amphetamine may impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown. Drug addiction is a serious risk with large recreational doses but is unlikely to arise from typical long-term medical use at therapeutic doses. Very high doses can result in psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia) which rarely occurs at therapeutic doses even during long-term use. Recreational doses are generally much larger than prescribed therapeutic doses and carry a far greater risk of serious side effects.
Amphetamine belongs to the phenethylamine class. It is also the parent compound of its own structural class, the substituted amphetamines, which includes prominent substances such as bupropion, cathinone, MDMA (ecstasy), and methamphetamine. As a member of the phenethylamine class, amphetamine is also chemically related to the naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulators, specifically phenethylamine and , both of which are produced within the human body. Phenethylamine is the parent compound of amphetamine, while is a constitutional isomer that differs only in the placement of the methyl group.
Amphetamine is a psychostimulant drug.
Amphetamine may also refer to:
- Levoamphetamine (l-amphetamine)
- Dextroamphetamine (d-amphetamine)
- Adderall, an amphetamine brand
- Substituted amphetamine, a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs
Amphetamine is a 2010 Hong Kong film starring Byron Pang and Thomas Price. It revolves around the story of a Chinese fitness trainer, Kafka, who meets Daniel, a business executive. The film is directed by acclaimed Hong Kong Chinese film-maker Scud, the stage name of Danny Cheng Wan-Cheung. It was nominated for a Teddy Award at the Berlin International Film Festival of 2010. It explores several themes traditionally regarded as 'taboo' in Hong Kong society in an unusually open, convention-defying way, and features full-frontal male nudity in several scenes. It is the third of five publicly-released films by Scud. The four others are: City Without Baseball, released in 2008, Permanent Residence in 2009, Love Actually... Sucks! in 2011, and his most recent, Voyage, in 2013. His sixth film, Utopians, has now been completed and awaits release, whilst his seventh, Naked Nation, is currently in production.
Usage examples of "amphetamine".
Pakistan has been producing and testing, on an experimental basis, a wide range of odd drugs, both amphetamines and narcotics, in pill, liquid, and aerosol form.
Barbiturates Barbiturates are basically the opposite of amphetamines: that is, they act to depress the central nervous system.
Mixing barbiturates and amphetamines usually results in an insane, unpleasant experience, although there are some freaks who swear by it.
Thus the training routine amounts to amphetamines in the morning, steroids in the day, and barbiturates at night.
Barbital, secobarbital, pentobartital, diazepam, meprobamate, atropine, scopolamine, amphetamine, pipradol, cannabis, peyote, dimethyltryptamine, fopium, heroin, morphine, pethidine, piminodine, acetone, amyl nitrite or what?
Negative for amphetamines, antihistamines, phencyclidine, benzodiazepines.
Each bottle arrives with a piece of paper stating that the urine contains no detectable amounts of amphetamines, barbiturates, methadone, opiates, metabolized cocaine, benzodiazepine or THC, the active ingredient in marijuana.
Smoked cocaine for the first time, smoked meth amphetamine for the first time, smoked PCP for the first time.
The overdosage of amphetamines wasted the body away, turned matter into energy.
Amphetamines are broken down chemically into three types: salts of racemic Amphetamines, dextroAmphetamines, and methAmphetamines, which only differ in potencies.
Collette Lucas murdered her husband, Geral dine charged, by dropping a generous handful of amphetamines into his highball, his fourth of the evening.
The amphetamines had long since worn off, and he ached in more places than his leg.
The amphetamines fuelled his paranoia and turned the whites of his eyes pink.
In every cell are men and women with wretched drug addictions: the crack head who robbed a Mini-Mart, the drunk who shot his neighbor during an argument, the auto thief who ate amphetamines for breakfast.
Two of the Sisters pop amphetamines, and one of my surgeons has a serious drug habit.