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Monkey \Mon"key\, n.; pl. Monkeys. [Cf. OIt. monicchio, It. monnino, dim. of monna an ape, also dame, mistress, contr. fr. madonna. See Madonna.]

  1. (Zo["o]l.)

    1. In the most general sense, any one of the Quadrumana, including apes, baboons, and lemurs.

    2. Any species of Quadrumana, except the lemurs.

    3. Any one of numerous species of Quadrumana (esp. such as have a long tail and prehensile feet) exclusive of apes and baboons. Note: The monkeys are often divided into three groups:

      1. Catarrhines, or Simid[ae]. These have an oblong head, with the oblique flat nostrils near together. Some have no tail, as the apes. All these are natives of the Old World.

      2. Platyrhines, or Cebid[ae]. These have a round head, with a broad nasal septum, so that the nostrils are wide apart and directed downward. The tail is often prehensile, and the thumb is short and not opposable. These are natives of the New World.

      3. Strepsorhines, or Lemuroidea. These have a pointed head with curved nostrils. They are natives of Southern Asia, Africa, and Madagascar.

  2. A term of disapproval, ridicule, or contempt, as for a mischievous child.

    This is the monkey's own giving out; she is persuaded I will marry her.

  3. The weight or hammer of a pile driver, that is, a very heavy mass of iron, which, being raised on high, falls on the head of the pile, and drives it into the earth; the falling weight of a drop hammer used in forging.

  4. A small trading vessel of the sixteenth century. Monkey boat. (Naut.)

    1. A small boat used in docks.

    2. A half-decked boat used on the River Thames.

      Monkey block (Naut.), a small single block strapped with a swivel.
      --R. H. Dana, Jr.

      Monkey flower (Bot.), a plant of the genus Mimulus; -- so called from the appearance of its gaping corolla.

      Monkey gaff (Naut.), a light gaff attached to the topmast for the better display of signals at sea.

      Monkey jacket, a short closely fitting jacket, worn by sailors.

      Monkey rail (Naut.), a second and lighter rail raised about six inches above the quarter rail of a ship.

      Monkey shine, monkey trick. [Slang, U.S.]

      Monkey trick, a mischievous prank.

      Monkey wheel. See Gin block, under 5th Gin.


Respiration \Res`pi*ra"tion\ (r?s`p?*r?"sh?n), n. [L. respiratio: cf. F. respiration. See Respire.]

  1. The act of respiring or breathing again, or catching one's breath.

  2. Relief from toil or suffering: rest. [Obs.]

    Till the day Appear of respiration to the just And vengeance to the wicked.

  3. Interval; intermission. [Obs.]
    --Bp. Hall.

  4. (Physiol.) The act of resping or breathing; the act of taking in and giving out air; the aggregate of those processes bu which oxygen is introduced into the system, and carbon dioxide, or carbonic acid, removed. Note: Respiration in the higher animals is divided into:

    1. Internal respiration, or the interchange of oxygen and carbonic acid between the cells of the body and the bathing them, which in one sense is a process of nutrition.

    2. External respiration, or the gaseous interchange taking place in the special respiratory organs, the lungs. This constitutes respiration proper.
      --Gamgee. [1913 Webster] In the respiration of plants oxygen is likewise absorbed and carbonic acid exhaled, but in the light this process is obscured by another process which goes on with more vigor, in which the plant inhales and absorbs carbonic acid and exhales free oxygen.


Libration \Li*bra"tion\ (l[-i]*br[=a]"sh[u^]n), n. [L. libratio: cf. F. libration.]

  1. The act or state of librating.
    --Jer. Taylor.

  2. (Astron.) A real or apparent libratory motion, like that of a balance before coming to rest.

    Libration of the moon, any one of those small periodical changes in the position of the moon's surface relatively to the earth, in consequence of which narrow portions at opposite limbs become visible or invisible alternately. It receives different names according to the manner in which it takes place; as: (a) Libration in longitude, that which, depending on the place of the moon in its elliptic orbit, causes small portions near the eastern and western borders alternately to appear and disappear each month. ( b) Libration in latitude, that which depends on the varying position of the moon's axis in respect to the spectator, causing the alternate appearance and disappearance of either pole. ( c) Diurnal or parallactic libration, that which brings into view on the upper limb, at rising and setting, some parts not in the average visible hemisphere.


Motion \Mo"tion\, n. [F., fr. L. motio, fr. movere, motum, to move. See Move.]

  1. The act, process, or state of changing place or position; movement; the passing of a body from one place or position to another, whether voluntary or involuntary; -- opposed to rest.

    Speaking or mute, all comeliness and grace attends thee, and each word, each motion, forms.

  2. Power of, or capacity for, motion.

    Devoid of sense and motion.

  3. Direction of movement; course; tendency; as, the motion of the planets is from west to east.

    In our proper motion we ascend.

  4. Change in the relative position of the parts of anything; action of a machine with respect to the relative movement of its parts.

    This is the great wheel to which the clock owes its motion.
    --Dr. H. More.

  5. Movement of the mind, desires, or passions; mental act, or impulse to any action; internal activity.

    Let a good man obey every good motion rising in his heart, knowing that every such motion proceeds from God.

  6. A proposal or suggestion looking to action or progress; esp., a formal proposal made in a deliberative assembly; as, a motion to adjourn.

    Yes, I agree, and thank you for your motion.

  7. (Law) An application made to a court or judge orally in open court. Its object is to obtain an order or rule directing some act to be done in favor of the applicant.
    --Mozley & W.

  8. (Mus.) Change of pitch in successive sounds, whether in the same part or in groups of parts.

    The independent motions of different parts sounding together constitute counterpoint.

    Note: Conjunct motion is that by single degrees of the scale. Contrary motion is that when parts move in opposite directions. Disjunct motion is motion by skips. Oblique motion is that when one part is stationary while another moves. Similar or direct motion is that when parts move in the same direction.

  9. A puppet show or puppet. [Obs.] What motion's this? the model of Nineveh? --Beau. & Fl. Note: Motion, in mechanics, may be simple or compound. Simple motions are:

    1. straight translation, which, if of indefinite duration, must be reciprocating.

    2. Simple rotation, which may be either continuous or reciprocating, and when reciprocating is called oscillating.

    3. Helical, which, if of indefinite duration, must be reciprocating.

      Compound motion consists of combinations of any of the simple motions.

      Center of motion, Harmonic motion, etc. See under Center, Harmonic, etc.

      Motion block (Steam Engine), a crosshead.

      Perpetual motion (Mech.), an incessant motion conceived to be attainable by a machine supplying its own motive forces independently of any action from without. According to the law of conservation of energy, such perpetual motion is impossible, and no device has yet been built that is capable of perpetual motion.

      Syn: See Movement.


Legate \Leg"ate\ (l[e^]g"[asl]t), n. [OE. legat, L. legatus, fr. legare to send with a commission or charge, to depute, fr. lex, legis, law: cf. F. l['e]gat, It. legato. See Legal.]

  1. An ambassador or envoy.

  2. An ecclesiastic representing the pope and invested with the authority of the Holy See. Note: Legates are of three kinds:

    1. Legates a latere, now always cardinals. They are called ordinary or extraordinary legates, the former governing provinces, and the latter class being sent to foreign countries on extraordinary occasions.

    2. Legati missi, who correspond to the ambassadors of temporal governments.

    3. Legati nati, or legates by virtue of their office, as the archbishops of Salzburg and Prague.

  3. (Rom. Hist.)

    1. An official assistant given to a general or to the governor of a province.

    2. Under the emperors, a governor sent to a province.


Infinitive \In*fin"i*tive\, n. [L. infinitivus: cf. F. infinitif. See Infinite.] Unlimited; not bounded or restricted; undefined. Infinitive mood (Gram.), that form of the verb which merely names the action, and performs the office of a verbal noun. Some grammarians make two forms in English:

  1. The simple form, as, speak, go, hear, before which to is commonly placed, as, to speak; to go; to hear.

  2. The form of the imperfect participle, called the infinitive in -ing; as, going is as easy as standing.

    Note: With the auxiliary verbs may, can, must, might, could, would, and should, the simple infinitive is expressed without to; as, you may speak; they must hear, etc. The infinitive usually omits to with the verbs let, dare, do, bid, make, see, hear, need, etc.; as, let me go; you dare not tell; make him work; hear him talk, etc.

    Note: In Anglo-Saxon, the simple infinitive was not preceded by to (the sign of modern simple infinitive), but it had a dative form (sometimes called the gerundial infinitive) which was preceded by to, and was chiefly employed in expressing purpose. See Gerund, 2.

    Note: The gerundial ending (-anne) not only took the same form as the simple infinitive (-an), but it was confounded with the present participle in -ende, or -inde (later -inge).


Gripe \Gripe\, n.

  1. Grasp; seizure; fast hold; clutch.

    A barren scepter in my gripe.

  2. That on which the grasp is put; a handle; a grip; as, the gripe of a sword.

  3. (Mech.) A device for grasping or holding anything; a brake to stop a wheel.

  4. Oppression; cruel exaction; affiction; pinching distress; as, the gripe of poverty.

  5. Pinching and spasmodic pain in the intestines; -- chiefly used in the plural.

  6. (Naut.)

    1. The piece of timber which terminates the keel at the fore end; the forefoot.

    2. The compass or sharpness of a ship's stern under the water, having a tendency to make her keep a good wind.

    3. pl. An assemblage of ropes, dead-eyes, and hocks, fastened to ringbolts in the deck, to secure the boats when hoisted; also, broad bands passed around a boat to secure it at the davits and prevent swinging.

      Gripe penny, a miser; a niggard.
      --D. L. Mackenzie.


Gastropoda \Gas*trop"o*da\, n. pl., [NL., fr. Gr. ?, ?, stomach + -poda.] (Zo["o]l.) One of the classes of Mollusca, of great extent. It includes most of the marine spiral shells, and the land and fresh-water snails. They generally creep by means of a flat, muscular disk, or foot, on the ventral side of the body. The head usually bears one or two pairs of tentacles. See Mollusca. [Written also Gasteropoda.] Note: The Gastropoda are divided into three subclasses; viz.:

  1. The Streptoneura or Dioecia, including the Pectinibranchiata, Rhipidoglossa, Docoglossa, and Heteropoda.

  2. The Euthyneura, including the Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia.

  3. The Amphineura, including the Polyplacophora and Aplacophora.


Ferment \Fer"ment\, n. [L. fermentum ferment (in senses 1 & 2), perh. for fervimentum, fr. fervere to be boiling hot, boil, ferment: cf. F. ferment. Cf. 1st Barm, Fervent.]

  1. That which causes fermentation, as yeast, barm, or fermenting beer. Note: Ferments are of two kinds:

    1. Formed or organized ferments.

    2. Unorganized or structureless ferments. The latter are now called enzymes and were formerly called soluble ferments or chemical ferments. Ferments of the first class are as a rule simple microscopic vegetable organisms, and the fermentations which they engender are due to their growth and development; as, the acetic ferment, the butyric ferment, etc. See Fermentation. Ferments of the second class, on the other hand, are chemical substances; as a rule they are proteins soluble in glycerin and precipitated by alcohol. In action they are catalytic and, mainly, hydrolytic. Good examples are pepsin of the dastric juice, ptyalin of the salvia, and disease of malt. Before 1960 the term "ferment" to mean "enzyme" fell out of use. Enzymes are now known to be globular proteins, capable of catalyzing a wide variety of chemical reactions, not merely hydrolytic. The full set of enzymes causing production of ethyl alcohol from sugar has been identified and individually purified and studied. See enzyme.

  2. Intestine motion; heat; tumult; agitation.

    Subdue and cool the ferment of desire.

    the nation is in a ferment.

  3. A gentle internal motion of the constituent parts of a fluid; fermentation. [R.]

    Down to the lowest lees the ferment ran.

    ferment oils, volatile oils produced by the fermentation of plants, and not originally contained in them. These were the quintessences of the alchemists.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

indefinite article, mid-12c., a variation of Old English an (see an) in which the -n- began to disappear before consonants, a process mostly complete by mid-14c. The -n- also was retained before words beginning with a sounded -h- until c.1600; it still is retained by many writers before unaccented syllables in h- or (e)u-, but is now no longer normally spoken as such. The -n- also lingered (especially in southern England dialect) before -w- and -y- through 15c.


as in twice a day, etc., from Old English an "on," in this case "on each." The sense was extended from time to measure, price, place, etc. The habit of tacking a onto a gerund (as in a-hunting we will go) died out 18c.


Etymology 1 alt. (non-gloss definition The first letter of the English alphabet, called a and written in the Appendix:Latin script Latin script.) card. (non-gloss definition The ordinal number '''first''', derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called a and written in the Appendix:Latin script Latin script.) letter (non-gloss definition The first letter of the English alphabet, called a and written in the Appendix:Latin script Latin script.) n. (non-gloss definition The name of the Appendix:Latin script Latin script letter '''A'''/'''a'''.) Etymology 2

article 1 One; any indefinite example of; used to denote a singular item of a group. (First attested prior to 1150) 2 (non-gloss definition: Used in conjunction with the adjectives score, dozen, hundred, thousand, and million, as a function word.) 3 One certain or particular; any single. (First attested between around 1150 to 1350)Brown, Lesley, (2003) 4 The same; one. (16th Century) 5 any, every; used before a noun which has become modified to limit its scope; also used with a negative to indicate not a single one.Lindberg, Christine A. (2007) 6 (non-gloss definition: Used before plural nouns modified by few, good many, couple, great many, etc.) 7 Someone or something like; similar to; (non-gloss definition: Used before a proper noun to create an example out of it.) Etymology 3

prep. 1 (lb en archaic) (non-gloss definition: To do with position or direction;) In, on, at, by, towards, onto. (First attested before 1150) 2 (non-gloss definition: To do with separation;) In, into. (First attested before 1150) 3 (non-gloss definition: To do with time;) Each, per, in, on, by. (First attested before 1150) 4 (lb en obsolete) (non-gloss definition: To do with method;) In, with. (First attested before 1150) 5 (lb en obsolete) (non-gloss definition: To do with role or capacity;) In. (First attested before 1150) 6 (non-gloss definition: To do with status;) In. (First attested before 1150) 7 (lb en archaic) (non-gloss definition: To do with process, with a passive verb;) In the course of, experiencing. (First attested before 1150) 8 (lb en archaic) (non-gloss definition: To do with an action, an active verb;) Engaged in. (16th century) 9 (lb en archaic) (non-gloss definition: To do with an action/movement;) To, into. (16th century) Etymology 4

alt. (senseid en have) (lb en archaic or slang) have. (between 1150 and 1350, continued in some use until 1650; used again after 1950) vb. (senseid en have) (lb en archaic or slang) have. (between 1150 and 1350, continued in some use until 1650; used again after 1950) Etymology 5

alt. (lb en obsolete outside England and Scotland dialects) he. (1150-1900) pron. (lb en obsolete outside England and Scotland dialects) he. (1150-1900) Etymology 6

interj. A meaningless syllable; ah. Etymology 7

prep. (lb en archaic slang) Of. Etymology 8

  1. (lb en chiefly Scotland) All. (First attested from 1350 to 1470.) adv. (lb en chiefly Scotland) All. (First attested from 1350 to 1470.) alt. (lb en chiefly Scotland) All. (First attested from 1350 to 1470.) Etymology 9

    sym. 1 Distance from leading edge to aerodynamic center. 2 specific absorption coefficient 3 specific rotation 4 allele (recessive)


A ( named , plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The upper-case version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lower-case version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.

A (Jethro Tull album)

A is the 13th studio album by Jethro Tull. It was released on 29 August 1980 in the UK and 1 September of the same year in the United States. The album was recorded in the summer of 1980 using Maison Rouge Mobile and Maison Rouge Studios in Fulham, London. Eddie Jobson guested on the album, playing keyboards and electric violin. The album was produced by Ian Anderson and Robin Black.




"Ä" and "ä" are both characters that represent either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter A with an umlaut mark or diaeresis.


Â, â ( a- circumflex) is a letter of the French, Friulian, Frisian, Inari Sami, Portuguese, Romanian, Turkish, Vietnamese, Walloon, and Welsh alphabets.


Å (lower case: å) represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages. It is considered a separate letter in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish , North Frisian, Walloon, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Chamorro, Istro-Romanian, Lule Sami, Skolt Sami, Southern Sami, and Greenlandic alphabets. Additionally, it is part of the alphabets used for the Alemannic and the Bavarian- Austrian dialects of German.

Though Å is derived from an A with a ring, it is considered a separate letter. It developed as a form of semi- ligature of an A with a smaller o above it to denote a long and darker A, similar to how the umlaut mark that distinguishes Ä from A, and Ö/Ø from O, developed from a small e written above the letter in question.

A (band)

A are a British alternative rock band from Suffolk, England, that formed in 1993. They have released four albums, and two live mini-albums.

Shortly after releasing their fourth album, Teen Dance Ordinance in 2005, the band took a hiatus. In 2007 'A' reunited for a one-off gig, and have been touring sporadically ever since, most recently with Bowling for Soup, on their October 2010 UK tour.

A (Cyrillic)

A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It commonly represents an open central unrounded vowel , like the pronunciation of in "father". The Cyrillic letter А is romanized using the Latin letter A.

Å (disambiguation)

Å (historically Aa) is a letter used in several Scandinavian, High German, and Finno-Permic languages.

Å may also refer to:

A (S-train)

A is a service on the S-train network in Copenhagen. It is one of the base services on the network, running every 20 minutes from about 5:00 to 0:30 every day, and every 10 minutes from about 6:15 to 19:00. It runs between Hundige and Hillerød, serving all stations on the inner part of the Køge radial. During daytime on weekdays, every second train continues from Hundige station to Solrød Strand station. On Friday and Saturday nights there is also a 30 minutes service throughout the night.


À à

À, à ( a- grave) is a letter of the Catalan, Emilian-Romagnol, French, Galician, Italian, Occitan, Portuguese, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, and Welsh languages consisting of the letter A of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and a grave accent. À is also used in Pinyin transliteration. In most languages, it represents the vowel a. This letter is also a letter in Taos to indicate a mid tone.

When denoting quantity, à means "each": "5 apples à $1" (one dollar each). That usage is based upon the French preposition à and has evolved into the at sign (@). Sometimes, it is part of a surname: Thomas à Kempis, Mary Anne à Beckett, Gilbert Abbott à Beckett, Gilbert Arthur à Beckett, Arthur William à Beckett, William à Beckett.

A (disambiguation)

A is the first letter of the Latin alphabet.

A may also refer to:

A (Cass McCombs album)

A is the debut album by Cass McCombs and was released on May 20, 2003 on Monitor Records.

A (1965 film)

A is a 1965 short film animated by Jan Lenica. It involves a writer tormented by a giant letter "A". He frees himself from the "A" only to encounter a "B". It began production in late 1965 and premiered at the Oberhausen Film Festival in February 1965.

A (1998 Japanese film)

A is a 1998 Japanese documentary film about the Aum Shinrikyo cult following the arrest of its leaders for instigating the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway in 1995. The film focuses on a young spokesman for the cult Hiroshi Araki, a troubled 28-year-old who had severed all family ties and rejected all forms of materialism before joining the sect.

Director Tatsuya Mori was allowed exclusive access to Aum's offices for over a year as news media were continually kept out. However, despite the documentary's unique perspective on Aum's internal workings, it was not financially successful.

A (hangul)

is one of the Korean hangul. The Unicode for ㅏ is U+314F.

A (Rainbow song)

"A" is a song by South Korean girl group Rainbow. The song was released on August 12, 2010, and was later included on their second mini album So Girls.

A (Jimmy Raney album)

A is an album by guitarist Jimmy Raney recorded at three separate sessions between 1954 and 1955 and released on the Prestige label.


Á, á ( a- acute) is a letter of the Czech, Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, Irish, Sámi and Slovak languages. This letter also appears in Dutch, Galician, Lakota, Navajo, Occitan, Portuguese, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Welsh as a variant of the letter “ a”. It also appears in Blackfoot. It is sometimes confused with à; e.g. "5 apples á $1", which is more commonly written as "5 apples à $1" (French for "5 apples at 1 dollar each").


Ã/ã ( a- tilde) is a letter used in some languages, generally considered a variant of the letter A.

In Portuguese, Ã/ã represents a nasal near-open central vowel, (its exact height varies from near-open to mid according to dialect). The combination represents the diphthong in most dialects ( in Brazil's RS, SC, PR, SP, MS and among caipira speakers), and represents in most dialects ( in Brazil's RS, SC, PR, SP, MS and among caipira speakers, while in hinterland European northern dialects of Portuguese it represents and in some reintegrationist Galician orthographies it may represent ).

The symbol is used for a similar sound in Aromanian, Guaraní, Kashubian and Taa.

In Aromanian, the symbol is used for the mid-central vowel .

In Vietnamese, it represents in a high breaking-rising tone. This also used in !Xóõ.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, stands for a nasal open front unrounded vowel, as in Quebec French maman and Jean.

A (New York City Subway service)

The A Eighth Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored since it uses the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan. The A operates between 207th Street in Inwood, Manhattan and Mott Avenue in Far Rockaway, Queens, or Lefferts Boulevard in Richmond Hill, Queens. The A is the Central Park West / Eighth Avenue Express in Manhattan, Fulton Street Express in Brooklyn, and Liberty Avenue / Rockaway Local in Queens during daytime hours. The A provides the longest one-seat ride in the system, at between Inwood and Far Rockaway and has a weekday ridership of 600,000. Five rush hour trips run to and from Beach 116th Street in Rockaway Park, Queens, in the peak direction. At all times, a shuttle train (S – Rockaway Park Shuttle) operates between Broad Channel, where it connects with the A, and Rockaway Park. During late nights, the A makes all stops along its entire route and originates/terminates at Far Rockaway only; a shuttle train (Lefferts Boulevard Shuttle) runs between Euclid Avenue and Lefferts Boulevard.

A (Agnetha Fältskog album)

A is the fifth English language studio album by Swedish recording artist Agnetha Fältskog, formerly a member of the group ABBA. It is her twelfth studio album overall.

A is Fältskog's first album since 2004's My Colouring Book, an album of cover versions of her favourite songs from the 1960s, and the first original material she has recorded since I Stand Alone in 1987. It also includes her first self-penned track in nearly 30 years, "I Keep Them On The Floor Beside My Bed" .

A (Big Bang album)

A is the fifth single album by South Korean band Big Bang, and the second from their MADE Series.

A (yacht)

A is the name given to two yachts built for Andrey Melnichenko. Both were designed by Philippe Starck and built at Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft's deepwater facility in Kiel.

  • Blohm + Voss 119m motor yacht A (2008)
  • Nobiskrug 143m sailing yacht A (2015)



<! -is the 1st vowel in Bengali Alphabet


Ą ( minuscule: ą) is a letter in the Polish, Kashubian, Lithuanian, Creek, Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Osage, Hocąk, Mescalero, Gwich'in, Tutchone, and Elfdalian alphabets. It is formed from the letter a and an ogonek and usually – except for modern Polish – denotes a nasal a sound.

For A. E. van Vogt's novel, see The World of Null-A.

Ā, lowercase ā, is a grapheme, a Latin A with a macron, is used in several orthographies.

In some languages Ā is used to denote a long A. Examples are the Baltic languages, Polynesian languages, some romanizations of Japanese ( rōmaji), Persian, Pashto, and Arabic, and some Latin texts (especially for learners). In Romanised Mandarin Chinese ( pinyin) it is used to represent A spoken with a level high tone ( first tone). It is used in some orthography-based transcriptions of English to represent the diphthong , and also in commercial names such as Drāno and Powerāde.

In the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, Ā represents the open back unrounded vowel, आ, not to be confused with the similar Devanagari character for the mid central vowel, अ.

In the languages other than Sanskrit, Ā is sorted with other A's and is not considered a separate letter. The macron is only considered when sorting words that are otherwise identical. For example, in Māori, tāu (meaning your) comes after tau (meaning year), but before taumata (hill).


Ă ( upper case) or ă ( lower case), usually referred to in English as A- breve, is a letter used in standard Romanian language, Vietnamese language and Chuvash language orthographies. In Romanian, it is used to represent the mid-central unrounded vowel, while in Vietnamese it represents the short a sound. It is the second letter of both the Romanian, Vietnamese, and the pre-1972 Malaysian alphabets, after A.

Ă/ă is also used in several languages for transliteration of Bulgarian letter Ъ/ ъ.

A (kana)

in hiragana or in katakana ( romanised a) is one of the Japanese kana that each represent one mora. あ is based on the sōsho style of kanji , and ア is from the radical of kanji . In the modern Japanese system of alphabetical order, it occupies the first position of the alphabet, before い. Additionally, it is the 36th letter in Iroha, after て, before さ. Its hiragana resembles the kana no combined with a cross. The Unicode for あ is U+3042, and the Unicode for ア is U+30A2.

The characters represent .





Normal a/i/u/e/o
( a-gyō)


aa, ah

ああ, あぁ

アア, アァ

A (musical note)

La or A is the sixth note of the fixed-Do solfège. Its enharmonic equivalent B (or Heses) is a diatonic semitone above A.

"A" is generally used as a standard for tuning. When the orchestra tunes, the oboe plays an "A" and the rest of the instruments tune to match that pitch. Every string instrument in the orchestra has an A string, from which each player can tune the rest of their instrument.

"A" is also used in combination with a number (e.g. A-440) to label the pitch standard. The number designates the frequency in hertz. A lower number equals a lower pitch.

By an international treaty signed in 1939, modern pitch is standardized at A-440. However, tuning has varied over time, geographical region, or instrument maker. In 17th-century Europe, tunings ranged from about A-374 to A-403, approximately two to three semitones below A-440. Historical examples exist of instruments, tuning forks, or standards ranging from A-309 to A-455.3, a difference of almost six semitones. Although the official standard today is A-440, some orchestral groups and chamber groups prefer to tune a little higher, at A-442 or even A-444. Baroque pitch is usually cited as A-415, which is a semitone lower than modern pitch.

A0 is the lowest note on the standard piano. The octaves follow A1, A2, etc. A7 is a few pitches lower than C8, the highest note on the standard piano. The note "A" is not considered to be a certain milestone or mark to hit with voice as, for example, Tenor C is, but it can be extremely demanding in certain octaves.

A (Ayumi Hamasaki EP)

A (stylized as ) is an extended play (EP) by Japanese recording artist Ayumi Hamasaki. It was released by Avex Trax in Japan and Hong Kong on August 11, 1999 in 10 different editions, and through Avex Entertainment Inc. worldwide in September 2008. It also served as a single through her second studio album Loveppears (1999), and is her first single marketed as an EP. The EP includes the four original tracks "Monochrome", "Too Late", "Trauma", and "End Roll", all served as promotional single from A, alongside eight remixes. The tracks written by Hamasaki herself, while production was handled by long-time collaborator Max Matsuura.

Musically, A is a pop rock album that is influenced by dance music, a common trait that runs throughout its parent album. Lyrically, the original tracks are written in third person perspective and deal with themes such as nostalgia, anxiety and trauma. Upon its release, A received favorable reviews from music critics as both a collection and by individual tracks. Some of the tracks were highlighted as examples of Hamasaki's best work, whilst some praised the production of the original songs in compared to the album versions. However, a critic from CD Journal criticized the amount of remixes on the EP.

Commercially, the single was a huge success in Japan, peaking at number one on the Oricon Singles Chart and TBS' Count Down TV chart. It became Hamasaki's second consecutive single to sell over one million units in that region, and was certified Million by the Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ) for shipments of one million units. It is Hamasaki's best selling single, and one of the best selling singles in Japan music history. No music videos were shot for the tracks, but Hamasaki and the original recordings appeared in commercial videos that broadcast in Japan. Each individual original track has appeared on Hamasaki's greatest hits albums, such as A Best (2001) and A Complete: All Singles (2007).

A (Kannada film)

A is a 1998 Indian Kannada-language blockbuster psychological love story film written and directed by Upendra. It starred Upendra and Chandini as the lead couple. It tells the love story between a film director and an actress which is narrated through multiple flashbacks within flashbacks and reverse screenplay. The film deals with dark truths of the film world like the casting couch. Due to the reverse screenplay, some audience members watched it multiple times to understand the story. The opening sequence of the movie reminds of Jean-Paul Sartre's short story "Erostratus", found in 1939 collection of short stories The Wall.

Upon release, A collected more than 20 crore at the box office. The movie was dubbed into Telugu and released in Andhra Pradesh. The film was remade in Tamil as Adavadi. It was Gurukiran's first film as a music director. Upendra won the Udaya Film Award for Best Male Actor (1998) and Gurukiran won the Udaya Film Award for Best Music Director (1998).

A (Pretty Little Liars)

"A" is a fictional character created in 2006 by author Sara Shepard. It is a character of both Pretty Little Liars' books and television series, and primarily appears as a stalker and the main antagonist of the stories. "A" is one of the main characters of the stories, appearing anonymously in the majority of the episodes and books.

The villain has already had many portrayals. Its basic occupation is to pursue and threaten the four protagonists of the stories. Thus, many identities have been revealed to be "A". "A" has a specific and unhealthy way of dealing with the protagonists; it often calls them as " bitches", " dolls" and " liars". Its handling and acts of terrorism caused great psychological and emotional damage to the protagonists, even leading one of them to be hospitalized.

After the revelation of Mona Vanderwaal as the first "A", she began receiving visits from someone, known as Red Coat, who offered her a partnership and together they built up the "A-Team". The team had many members but disbanded after the season three finale and Big A began working only with her ally. The identity of the second "A" and the leader of the "A-Team" was revealed as CeCe Drake . Five years later, a new "A" arises and begins using Emojis to communicate but later names themselves "A.D.", while the Liars refer to him/her as Uber A.

A (cuneiform)

The cuneiform sign for a, and in the Epic of Gilgamesh the sumerogram A, Akkadian for , "water", which is used in the Gilgamesh flood myth, Chapter XI of the Epic, or other passages. The sign is also used extensively in the Amarna letters.

Cuneiform a is the most common of the 4-vowels in the Akkadian language, a, e, i, and u. All vowels can be interchangeable, depending on the scribe, though spellings of Akkadian words in dictionaries, will be formalized, and typically: unstressed, a 'long-vowel', or thirdly, a 'combined' vowel (often spelled with two signs (same vowel, ending the first sign, and starting the next sign), thus combined into the single vowel, â, ê, î, or û.). Cuneiform a is the most common of the four vowels, as can be shown by usage in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the usage numbers being (ú (u, no. 2) is more common than u, (no. 1), which has additional usages, numeral "10", and "and", "but", etc.): a-(1369), e-(327), i-(698), ú-(493). (For u, only: u-(166)); The usage for a, includes the usage for Akkadian a-na, (ana), the preposition, "for", "to", etc., about 250 usages (therefore usage: 1369-250).

A (The Walking Dead)

"A" is the sixteenth episode and fourth season finale of the post-apocalyptic horror television series The Walking Dead. Themes explored in the episode include preparedness and the extremities of living in a lawless world. The latter is explored through Rick Grimes's guilt and trauma after being forced to brutally murder several men to protect his son. It was directed by Michelle MacLaren and written by Scott M. Gimple and Angela Kang. The episode aired on AMC on March 30, 2014.

Usage examples of "a".

Herrn Seebeck die Enthebung aus seinem Amte mitgeteilt, die er aber ignoriert.

Mallick Rel, his fat, soft hands folded together and resting on his paunch, his skin the colour of oiled leather and smelling of Aren perfumes.

Admiral Nok is to leave Hissar Harbour and proceed to Aren as soon as his ships are resupplied.

Secondly, I would think most of the tribes between here and Aren have set off to join Kamist Reloe.

One who was indebted to you, and to whom I was in turn indebted, with the result that I was tasked with arranging your departure from Aren, which I have now done, thus freeing me of further obligationswhich has proved timely, I might add.

The trader was towed clear of the inside harbour before being allowed to stretch sails, flanked by Imperial galleys that would provide escort crossing Aren Bay.

Coltaine could deliver this train to a place three miles up the coast from Aren and Pormqual would not set forth to deliver us.

It looked like nothing more than a cairn marker, a huge, elongated slab of stone tilted upward at the southernmost end, as if pointing the way across the Nenoth Odhan to Aren or some other, more recent destination.

Hills to the east and the Saniphir Hills to the west, the track running for seven leagues, opening out on a plain that faced the ancient tel of Sanimon, then wrapped around it to encompass the Sanith Odhan and, beyond that, the Geleen Plain, the Dojal Odhanand the city of Aren itself.

We shall escort you to Balahn village, and the beginning of the road known as Aren Way.

Even if we make it to Balahn, to Aren Way, it is still three leagues to the city itself.

The Wickans rode at either side, desperately trying to contain the human river, and Duiker could now see among them soldiers in the uniform of the Aren City Garrison joining in the effort.

When the gate finally emptied, not a single breathing refugee remained outside the walls, barring those he could see well down the road, still seated on the cobbles, unable to move, drawing their last breathstoo far away to retrieve, and it was clear that the Aren soldiers had been given strict orders about how far beyond the gate they were permitted.

Aye, we can march, but it will take months to reach the Aren Plain, and by then Korbolo will have given Tavore all the justification she needs to deliver a ruthless punishment.

Yet even worse was the knowledge that that pain would accompany his entire final journey down into eventual unconsciousness, and with itan added traumawere the images burned into him: almost forty hours of being driven on foot up Aren Way, watching each and every one of those ten thousand soldiers joined to the mass crucifixion in a chain of suffering stretching over three leagues, each link scores of men and women nailed to every tree, to every available space on those tall, broad trunks.