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are privately run schools that are marketed to students taking examinations held each year in Japan from January to March to determine college admissions. These students generally have graduated from high school but have failed to enter the school of their choice. This test, unlike the French Baccalauréat or the South Korean College Scholastic Ability Test, has different versions with different schools looking for results from different exams. In Japan, this test is generally considered the most important event in a child's education. Students who fail may spend a year or more studying to retake the examination. They are sometimes referred to as rōnin, after masterless samurai.Yobiko are similar to juku except for differences such as curriculum, legal status, and the primary type of students who attend. (Blumenthal, 1992; Tsukada, 1988a).