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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
a structural defect
▪ Older buildings are bound to have some structural defects.
structural damage (=to the structure of a building)
▪ The building was checked for structural damage.
structural engineer
structural repairs (=to the walls or roof of a building or to the main parts of a bridge or other structure)
▪ A survey showed that the bridge needed significant structural repairs.
▪ To say that long-term success depends on more structural reform and more austerity is not a comfortable political message.
▪ Each of these paragraphs contains one or more structural devices.
▪ Despite widespread protests, the government was about to launch its third structural adjustment programme in May 1991.
▪ The move away from project loans and towards structural adjustment loans in the 1980s does not diminish the main thrust of this argument.
▪ Loans are available for a three-year period in support of a three-year macroeconomic and structural adjustment programme.
▪ Cuts in expenditure were made as part of the country's structural adjustment programme.
▪ It was conditional on Budapest agreeing a structural adjustment programme with the International Monetary Fund and implementing market-based economic reforms.
▪ In particular many pointed to growing social unrest, crime and unemployment caused in part by the government's structural adjustment policies.
▪ Ask for quotes for the full job, which will including fitting charges, plus any structural alterations needed.
▪ The licensing board may itself order structural alterations to be executed under s.36.
▪ Perhaps you ought to reconsider the bathroom and toilet provision, which will require expensive structural alterations and affect your pricing proposals.
▪ The corresponding provision for licensed premises with regard to structural alterations directed by the licensing board will be found in s.36.
▪ Similarly, structural analysis is replaced by deconstruction which also questions its objects rather than reflecting them.
▪ Such structural analysis provides clues about the sites on the molecule responsible for its biological activity in the body.
▪ These features make TOF-SARS capable of both elemental and structural analysis.
▪ TOF-SARS in catalysis TOF-SARS has applications in catalysis as an elemental and structural analysis technique.
▪ The intensities necessary for structural analysis are obtained by integrating the indicated areas of fixed time windows under these peaks.
▪ As a structural analysis technique, TOF-SARS is sensitive to short range order - ie individual interatomic spacings along azimuths.
▪ The structural analysis of ageing has become increasingly prominent in recent years.
▪ One was sampled and subjected to chemical and structural analysis.
▪ Those who strongly doubt whether the cost-benefit exercise can be adequately performed are more inclined to a rules based or structural approach.
▪ In this the structural approach to literature has huge advantages over many other linguistically inspired theories.
▪ I shall then briefly outline a structural approach to the problem of the distinction between numerical and qualitative identity.
▪ A structural approach is rejected on the basis that it is unable to capture the creativity of language.
▪ The proximity, both geographically and chronologically, of such similar structural arrangements is, clearly, very significant.
▪ In contrast, a nonconstitutional regime is characterized by unchecked power, and the structural arrangements of the constitution are not upheld.
▪ We need some way to distinguish such events from the crises that mark structural changes.
▪ These issues must be dealt with not through scapegoating and punishment but rather through fundamental structural change.
▪ Deep structural changes will be necessary in developing countries if literacy is to go beyond the citadels of the elites.
▪ The structural changes that are seen in hemoglobin 5 and C disorders are inherited as autosomal recessive traits. 216.
▪ Such changes may be associated with equally structural changes in the wider economy and society.
▪ He does add, however, that structural changes are also necessary to accommodate the benefits of educational expansion.
▪ Physical or structural characteristics, form of construction or condition.
▪ The other structural characteristic that may be used to quantitate serum proteins is the presence of peptide bonds.
▪ He provides a careful analysis of the relationship between the functional and structural characteristics of different types of discourse.
▪ Document preparation systems have structural components such as paragraphs, and hypertext systems have additional structural components concerned with linking.
▪ Yet on closer inspection it will be found that they both contain just the same structural components.
▪ The metal is widely used for implements and structural components.
▪ The separation between cytoplasmic content and parietal structures may represent the metabolic end point in which structural components must also be utilised.
▪ And there were inevitable structural constraints built in.
▪ However, the emphasis on structural constraints and formal controls provides only a partial view.
▪ Minor bombing incidents in Buenos Aires and Santiago caused little structural damage and nobody was reported to have been injured.
▪ And the occasional burst pipe can cause major structural damage rather quickly.
▪ No one was injured but the interchange was closed because of fears of major structural damage.
▪ But most people found only busy signals, as structural damage and call volume overwhelmed local phone systems.
▪ Offices of the Levi jeans company and the computer firm, Casio, were being checked yesterday for structural damage.
▪ More structural damage could be hidden, one reporter said to explain Seattle's largely unscathed appearance.
▪ It caused £1,500 million of structural damage to at least 35 buildings.
▪ There was only minor structural damage to roofs and chimneys.
▪ This is not a structural defect - only a sign of antiquity.
▪ Scores of schools were shown to have similar structural defects.
▪ We regard this result as strong evidence against a possible structural defect of the Dcm/Cys177Ser mutant.
▪ There are structural differences, too.
▪ These structural differences create different learning paradigms by which neural networks are classified.
▪ These structural differences will now be examined more closely.
▪ There appear to be structural differences between the major countries in the pattern of industrial financing.
▪ Substitution drills should concentrate particularly on structural differences between the languages.
▪ A further structural difference was the impact of feminism.
▪ Although there are important variations within each country, on a cross-national comparison two principal structural differences are noted.
▪ Veronica, a civil and structural engineer, also has a technical day at work.
▪ Anyone with a wall problem should hire a qualified structural engineer to write a specification that will solve the problem.
▪ If they have, then a structural engineer must be asked to advise.
▪ For the structural engineer considering how to design a steel skeleton for the skyscraper, there were certain important implications.
▪ I face the same problems as a structural engineer.
▪ As a structural engineer, he draws conclusions about overly high chimneys, mortar quality, and roofing tiles.
▪ To overcome this templates were made and a structural engineer took constant vertical and horizontal measurements to plot the path of construction.
▪ A structural engineer or knowledgeable contractor can advise you on that.
▪ But there were also structural factors at play.
▪ Such approaches have been criticised for failing to take account of external or structural factors which influence people's experience of ageing.
▪ Underpinning this commitment, however, were powerful structural factors.
▪ Aspects of individual lifestyle, as well as structural factors, are related to health.
▪ The most dominant structural factor in the work is that much of it is cast in the form of canticles.
▪ The technical literature suggests that structural factors may have been more important than price factors in explaining the persistent deficit.
▪ Internal layout and structural factors are vital.
▪ However, an important structural factor by way of explanation again relates to the nature and pace of industrial development.
▪ The report gives examples of species whose existence is being threatened by structural funds.
▪ I remind the House that we pay £1,800 million into structural funds and receive only £900 million back.
▪ Precise definition of the tasks of the structural funds in relation to these objectives. 3.
▪ Why is he withholding our money when, although the structural funds are doubling, we are likely to receive less?
▪ We have made it clear that we see no case for a further massive increase in the structural funds.
▪ Extracellular matrix is an integral part of multicellular organisms, providing structural integrity and support to cells.
▪ There was now not the slightest doubt that Hsu was decaying and losing her structural integrity.
▪ Of course different clays can withstand different firing temperatures before they vitrify and lose their structural integrity.
▪ Very high structural integrity as evidenced by a 30,000 hour design life and no speed limit in turbulence.
▪ In borrowing from structural linguistics the early structuralists took on the task of analysing signs and systems of signification.
▪ Taking its cue from structural linguistics, it will concentrate on the signifiers at the expense of the signifieds.
▪ But in his second phase the issues of systematicity and method become blurred and the connection with structural linguistics becomes vague.
▪ Generative grammar rejects the empirical nature of structural linguistics and instead uses linguistic intuitions of native speakers.
▪ This functionalist, teleological aim is inappropriate for the systematic analysis borrowed from structural linguistics.
▪ The early structuralists analyse relations between larger elements of meaning than is entertained in structural linguistics.
▪ The doubts expressed by ministers and Home Office officials in the 1880s were symptomatic of much deeper structural problems.
▪ A sure tip-off that you have structural problems is repeated ideas.
▪ Before any painting is considered, be sure to detail with any structural problems - as explained on page 13.
▪ Sometimes doing that causes nasty structural problems, like a caved-in cake.
▪ Rather the criticism is that the basic and structural problems are not being tackled with the vigour that is required.
▪ Virtually all structural problems can be solved.
▪ Serious structural problems mean the building which is just 10 years old needs around £4.5m worth of repairs.
▪ Object: To eliminate structural problems without having to reread your document or waste time cutting and pasting paragraphs.
▪ To say that long-term success depends on more structural reform and more austerity is not a comfortable political message.
▪ Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto has targeted education as one of six areas urgently in need of structural reform.
▪ In 1992 structural reforms to limit spending would include reform of the civil service.
▪ Part of my Senate life was trying to figure out how to get things right, the structural reform.
▪ However a structural reform was undertaken in an attempt to decentralize the workings of the party.
▪ At the very heart of single capacity was the Stock Exchange's rule-book which effectively blocked significant structural reform.
▪ Of course, a number of measures must be taken while more long-term structural reform is implemented.
▪ The conference approved a series of structural reforms giving constituency parties and the unions more power over the appointment of the leader.
▪ Chiropractic Practitioners deal with the structural relationships between the nerve tissues and the spinal column.
▪ One important structural relationship is that between bureaucracies and groups that represent particular interests.
▪ Friendships are based on a completely different set of structural relationships to those with parents.
▪ As I have written earlier, in games the structural relationship which implies tension is often explicitly defined.
▪ Her desired outcome was a bit of money to help with major structural repairs.
▪ Masonry walls have a lot more kinds of cracking, and some can require a structural repair.
▪ In 1987 a survey concluded that the theatre should shut immediately, to allow structural repairs, rewiring, refitting and restoration.
▪ The bulk of the money went on the addition of amenities and not on structural repairs.
▪ Last year a routine survey revealed that the bridge was in need of significant structural repair.
▪ Rack structures are of structural steel or thin section steel construction.
▪ Some specialize-for example, in structural steel or reinforced concrete structures.
▪ Lateral stability to the structure is provided by a braced structural steel core.
▪ Public works inspectors may specialize in highways, structural steel, reinforced concrete, or ditches.
▪ This building also will be made of structural steel and concrete blocks.
▪ It also owns shipyards and structural steel plants that make highway guard rails.
▪ Simply take the precaution of having a structural survey carried out before the 10-year guarantee expires, and at 10-yearly intervals thereafter.
▪ As professional consultants we also advise and take instructions for design, supervision and structural surveys.
▪ The third type of valuation and report is a full structural survey.
▪ So, a new house will need a thorough inspection before two years have elapsed and a structural survey before ten years.
▪ In each case, the association had commissioned structural surveys, followed by feasibility and market studies.
▪ This may be the cause of semi-permanent structural unemployment, aggravated perhaps by excessively cautious government policies.
▪ From the point of view of demand management, therefore, frictional and structural unemployment is an irreducible minimum unemployment rate.
▪ Initially there was a response from some critics asserting that this would lead to structural unemployment.
▪ It will be argued subsequently that the present forms of science and technology will in any case give rise to structural unemployment.
▪ It is the rate of frictional and structural unemployment.
▪ In recent years, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on technological progress as a cause of structural unemployment.
▪ Aside from its dubious cultural charm, there are serious structural weaknesses which may one day embarrass us.
structural damage
▪ Even in ruin the Colosseum is a magnificent edifice of great structural interest and aesthetic splendour.
▪ His commitment to the transformation of society through identifying and resolving structural issues is very intense.
▪ One important structural relationship is that between bureaucracies and groups that represent particular interests.
▪ Such approaches have been criticised for failing to take account of external or structural factors which influence people's experience of ageing.
▪ Taking its cue from structural linguistics, it will concentrate on the signifiers at the expense of the signifieds.
▪ There is the matter of future planning and the effect on structural plans for the area.
▪ This lawyer was therefore classified as professionally marginal, in a structural rather than an attitudinal sense.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Structural \Struc"tur*al\, a.

  1. Of or pertaining to structure; affecting structure; as, a structural error.

  2. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to organit structure; as, a structural element or cell; the structural peculiarities of an animal or a plant.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1814, from structure + -al (1). Related: Structurally.


a. 1 Of, relating to, or having structure 2 (rfc-sense) Used in building. n. A component used in construction.

  1. adj. relating to or caused by structure, especially political or economic structure; "structural unemployment in a technological society"

  2. relating to or having or characterized by structure; "structural engineer"; "structural errors"; "structural simplicity"

  3. affecting or involved in structure or construction; "the structural details of a house such as beams and joists and rafters; not ornamental elements"; "structural damage"

  4. concerned with systematic structure in a particular field of study

  5. pertaining to geological structure; "geomorphological features of the Black Hills"; "morphological features of granite"; "structural effects of folding and faulting of the earth's surface" [syn: geomorphologic, geomorphological, morphologic, morphological]

  6. relating to or concerned with the morphology of plants and animals; "morphological differences" [syn: morphologic, morphological]


Usage examples of "structural".

In addition, the engineering side of architecture was also stressed because of the importance attached by the Japanese government to structural design for the purpose of protection against earthquakes.

Victor Basset and his entourage, including her own secretary, his valet who was also his chauffeur, had been established there for the last week, allowing him to make easy trips to Basset Hill and inspect its structural alterations.

In 1865 the most pressing and puzzling problem in organic structural chemistry was the nature of the benzene molecule.

It had to carry agricultural implements, heavy machinery, structural steel, pipes and pipe fittings, a bounteous supply of basic chemicals, fertilizers, and explosives.

As an integral part of the Strategic Bombing Survey, Reliance established the initial structural base for brainwashing, opinion-making, polling, survey and the systems analysis used by the Tavistock Institute in the United States.

A factor which Watson overlooks in his enthusiasm for asteroid mining is that if buckytube composites can be made cheap enough to make a space elevator possible they will entirely replace steel as a structural material.

Here the intense experiential disclosures do not have to be worked into a subjective structure already present, but rather have to be part of a subjective and intersubjective process of building a structure not yet in existence: experiences have to be part, not of structural uncovering, but of structural building.

Much of this unemployment was due, not to any mismanagement by the Diefenbaker government, but to structural weaknesses in the economy.

Guerrero, the structural integrity of the antenna booms can dampen out the low frequency platform jitter and the higher jitter the piezo electric system can handle.

On the one hand, he intends to exploit the marginality of the serious writer as a posture of unassimilatability, as a means of avoiding becoming one more shelf item, which has to do not only with the thematic politicization of the novel but also with the tinge of dread that structural unresolvability instills.

And there was always the chance that the Principessa had suffered serious structural damage.

He wondered how many major splintering hits the wall studs could sustain before structural damage became critical and one or another corner of the house sagged.

It is my firm belief from long observation of this phenomenon that game analysis must always be secondary to Structural and Transactional Analysis.

In the previous section we referred to both the structural means of intervention that involve the deployments of monetary mechanisms and financial maneuvers over the transnational field of interdependent productive regimes and interventions in the field of communication and their effects on the legitimation of the system.

But these sit upon a great mass of mostly unexamined structural human material, that labels us as Western Twentieth-Century Biologist or Ghetto Rabbi or Roman Centurion or Seventeenth-Century French Courtesan, or, for most people most of the time, Exploited Peasant.