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Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

high-level computer programming language, 1971, named for French scholar Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who invented a calculating machine c.1642.


n. In the SI, the Appendix:SI units of pressure and stress; one newton per square metre. Symbol: '''Pa'''.

  1. n. a unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter [syn: Pa]

  2. French mathematician and philosopher and Jansenist; invented an adding machine; contributed (with Fermat) to the theory of probability (1623-1662) [syn: Blaise Pascal]

  3. a programing language designed to teach programming through a top-down modular approach


Pascal or PASCAL may refer to:

Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring.

A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985.

Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre. It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal.

Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar, the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa), the megapascal (1 MPa = 1,000,000 Pa), and the gigapascal (1 GPa = 1,000,000,000 Pa).

The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101.325 kPa and approximates to the average pressure at sea-level at the lattitude 45° N. Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in hectopascals.

Pascal (crater)

Pascal is a lunar crater that lies near the northern limb of the Moon, on the western side of the pole. It is located to the north of the eroded crater Desargues, and just east of Brianchon. Pascal can be located by finding the crater Carpenter and then following the surface to the northwest towards the limb. However the visibility of this formation can be affected by libration.

This crater has undergone a degree of impact erosion that has left its features softened and rounded. The rim can still be followed around the perimeter, but it is no longer sharp-edged and the interior terraces have been all but worn away. Several craters lie across the outer rim, including the sharp-edged Pascal F intruding into the northwest rim; a more worn Pascal A intruding into the southwest; and the small, bowl-shaped Pascal G along the southeast rim.

Within the wide inner walls is a nearly level interior floor that has been resurfaced by lava. At the midpoint is a low ridge, forming a minor central peak. There are tiny craters at the north end of the floor, and at the northeast end of the central ridge. There is also a small chain of craterlets lying across the northeast inner wall.

Just to the north of Pascal is Poncelet C, a satellite crater of the lava-flooded Poncelet to the east. The rim of this crater is bisected by several grooves in the surface, one of which crosses the southeast rim and cuts across tangentially to the northeastern rim of Pascal.

Pascal (given name)

Pascal is a common masculine Francophone given name, cognate of Italian name Pasquale, Spanish name Pascual, Catalan name Pasqual.

Pascal is common in French-speaking countries, Germany and the Netherlands. Derived feminine forms include Pascale, Pascalle or Pascalina. Pascal is also common as a surname in France, and in Italy (in Piedmont, Aosta Valley and, as De Pascal, in Friuli-Venezia Giulia).

Pascal derives from the Latin paschalis or pashalis, which means "relating to Easter", from the Latin term for "Easter", pascha, Greek Πάσχα, from the Aramaic pasḥā ( Hebrew pesach) " Passover" (since the Hebrew holiday Passover coincides closely with the later Christian holiday of Easter, the Latin word came to be used for both occasions). The Christian given name is in origin from the meaning "one born on Easter day", or "born on Pentecost" (see below).

Variations of the given name include: Paschal, Pasqual, Pasquale, Paskal, Pascoal, Pascale, Pascha, Paschalis, Pascual, Pascoe and Pasco.

The name arises in the early medieval period, in Latin spelled Paschalis. An early bearer is Antipope Paschal ( fl. 687), and Pope Paschal I (d. 824). A variant Latin form of the name is Paschasius; this is the name of the 9th-century Frankish saint Paschasius Radbertus. Peter Pascual (Petrus Paschasius, d. 1299) was a bishop and martyr of medieval Andalusia. Saint Pascal (or San Pasqual) refers to Paschal Baylon (1540–1592), a Spanish friar and mystic. Baylon was born on 24 May 1540 to Aragonese peasants. His parents named him Pasqual because he was born on the day of the feast of Pentecost (not Easter), because Pentecost in Spain was known as "the Pasch (or Passover) of the Holy Ghost" at the time. After Pascual Baylon's beatification (1618) and canonization (1690), it became common to give the name Pascal to children born on the feast day of Saint Pascal (17 May) rather than on Easter or Pentecost, or independently of the child's date of birth.

PASCAL (database)

PASCAL is a scientific bibliographic database, which is maintained by INIST ( CNRS). PASCAL covers the core scientific literature in science, technology and medicine with special emphasis on European literature.

, PASCAL maintains a database of more than 17 million records, 90% of these are author abstracts. Its coverage is from 1973 to present. Its source documents are composed of journal articles at 88% (3,085 international titles), proceedings at 9%, and dissertations, books, patents, and reports account combined for 3%.

Pascal (surname)

Pascal is a French and an Italian surname.

Pascal (microarchitecture)

Pascal is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia as the successor to the Maxwell microarchitecture. The Pascal microarchitecture was introduced April 2016 with the GP100 chip. The GP100 chip has a two-to-one ratio of FP32 to FP64 cores and does not include ROPs at all. It is therefore the world's first "graphics" chip that cannot be used on a graphics card but instead targets solely computation.

On May 27, 2016 the GP104 chip to be found on the GeForce GTX 1080 and 1070 branded graphics cards. Graphics cards are part of the GeForce 10 series.

All chips implementing the Pascal microarchitecture are produced in TSMC's 16 nm FinFET manufacturing process.

The architecture is named after Blaise Pascal, the 17th century mathematician.

In March 2014, Nvidia announced that the successor to Maxwell would be the Pascal microarchitecture; announced on the 6th May 2016 and released on the 27th May 2016. The Tesla P100 (GP100 chip) has a different version of the Pascal architecture compared to the GTX GPUs (GP104 chip). The shader units in GP104 have a rather Maxwell-like design.

Architectural improvements of the GP100 architecture include the following:

  • In Pascal, an SM (streaming multiprocessor) consists of 64 CUDA cores. Maxwell packed 128, Kepler 192, Fermi 32 and Tesla only 8 CUDA cores into an SM; the GP100 SM is partitioned into two processing blocks, each having 32 single-precision CUDA Cores, an instruction buffer, a warp scheduler, 2 texture mapping units and 2 dispatch units.
  • CUDA Compute Capability 6.0.
  • High Bandwidth Memory 2 some cards feature 16 GiB HBM2 in four stacks with a total of 4096bit bus with a memory bandwidth of 720 GB/s
  • Unified memory A memory architecture, where the CPU and GPU can access both main system memory and memory on the graphics card with the help of a technology called "Page Migration Engine".
  • NVLink A high-bandwidth bus between the CPU and GPU, and between multiple GPUs. Allows much higher transfer speeds than those achievable by using PCI Express; estimated to provide between 80 and 200 GB/s.
  • 16-bit ( FP16) floating-point operations (colloquially "half precision") can be executed at twice the rate of 32-bit floating-point operations ("single precision") and 64-bit floating-point operations (colloquially "double precision") executed at half the rate of 32-bit floating point operations.
  • More registers - twice the amount of registers per CUDA core compared to Maxwell.
  • More shared memory.
  • Dynamic load balancing scheduling system. This allows the scheduler to dynamically adjust the amount of the GPU assigned to multiple tasks, ensuring that the GPU remains saturated with work except when there is no more work that can safely be distributed to distribute. Nvidia therefore has safely enabled asynchronous compute in Pascal's driver.
  • Instruction-level preemption.

Architectural improvements of the GP104 architecture include the following:

  • CUDA Compute Capability 6.1.
  • GDDR5X New memory standard supporting 10Gbit/s data rates, updated memory controller.
  • Simultaneous Multi-Projection - generating multiple projections of a single geometry stream, as it enters the SMP engine from upstream shader stages.
  • DisplayPort 1.4, HDMI 2.0b
  • Fourth generation Delta Color Compression
  • Enhanced SLI Interface - SLI interface with higher bandwidth compared to the previous versions.
  • PureVideo Feature Set H hardware video decoding HEVC Main10(10bit), Main12(12bit) & VP9 hardware decoding
  • HDCP 2.2 support for 4K DRM protected content playback & streaming(Maxwell GM200 & GM204 lack HDCP 2.2 support, GM206 supports HDCP 2.2)
  • NVENC HEVC Main10 10bit hardware encoding
  • GPU Boost 3.0
  • Asynchronous compute
  • Dynamic load balancing scheduling system. This allows the scheduler to dynamically adjust the amount of the GPU assigned to multiple tasks, ensuring that the GPU remains saturated with work except when there is no more work that can be safely distributed to distribute. Nvidia therefore has safely enabled asynchronous compute in Pascal's driver.
  • Instruction-level preemption. In graphics tasks, the driver restricts this to pixel-level preemption because pixel tasks typically finish quickly and the overhead costs of doing pixel-level preemption are much lower than performing instruction-level preemption. Compute tasks get instruction-level preemption because they can take long times to finish and there are no guarantees on when a compute task finishes, so the driver enables the very expensive instruction-level preemption for these tasks.
Pascal (singer)

Pascal (real name - Pavel Petrovich Titov, born August 17, 1964, Bryn, Duminichsky District, Kaluga Oblast, RSFSR, USSR) is a Soviet and Russian pop pop singer, musician and composer.

Together with the poet Konstantin Arsenev wrote a number of songs for Grigory Leps. He participated in the creation of the album "Pure works", dedicated to the 50th anniversary of Igor Talkov.

Usage examples of "pascal".

She begged her husband to invite a lady whom he had loved before marrying her while she invited Pascal Latilla for herself, and Callimena for me.

Laura and Sister Veronica together, Capella by herself until she tired and came and seated herself beside Sister Pascal on one of the flatter stones.

After I had made up my mind to leave Naples, I had a visit from Don Pascal Latilla, who brought with him the Abbe Galiani, whom I had known at Paris.

Pascal and Gini found four rental ncies, including the one in the Calle Larga, but all four were d and shuttered.

Pascal himself made, remarks to which Obe had listened with a tight set face.

Pascal, who had encountered heavy drinkers many times, and was used to such sudden swerves, made a placatory gesture.

Pascal, always absorbed, dedicated to his work, had a priestlike quality.

Pascal stared down at the white table in front He tried to tell himself that he had known this was you mean thatT scal looked up.

All that he says has been said over and over again, and Blaise Pascal went much farther, but he wrote more skilfully and better in every way than Helvetius, who, wishing to remain in France, was obliged to retract.

This book is as important in studying Chesterton as the Pensees would be for a student of Pascal.

Edward Quinet, Victor Chauffour, General Laidet, Pascal Duprat, Versigny, Antony Thouret, Thiers, Girardin, and Remusat.

Bresnahan showed the girl first the photograph of Pascal Burke, then Quintan Finn, Manus and Donal Frakes, Benny Carson, and finally Tim Tallon.

The only visible damage to the manor was some broken stones at one corner of the tower where it looked as though a giant beast had nibbled at the masonry, and that was probably the work of the springald that Father Pascal had mentioned, but the oversized cross- bow had obviously broken again and irremediably for Thomas could see it lying in two gigantic pieces in the field beside the tiny stone village church.

They went up to Caen on the tide, arriving in the morning, and once they were ashore Father Pascal offered Thomas and Robbie a blessing, then hitched up his shabby robe and began walking east to Paris.

Manus and Donal Frakes the favor of getting Pascal Burke out of their lives.