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Neptun

Neptun may refer to:

  • Neptun, Romania, resort town on the southeast Black Sea coast of Romania
  • Neptun (software), educational administration system used by universities and colleges in Hungary
  • Neptun (radar), a WWII German radar set
  • SK Neptun, Swedish swim team
  • Neptunkryssare, sailboat design
Neptun (radar)

Neptun ('Neptune') was the code name of a series of low-to-mid-VHF band airborne intercept radar devices developed by Germany in World War II and used as active targeting devices in several types of aircraft. They were usually combined with a so-called "backwards warning device", indicated by the addition of the letters "V/R" ("Vorwärts/Rückwärts",meaning Forward/Backward). Working in the metre range, Neptun was meant as a stop-gap solution until scheduled SHF-band devices became available (for instance the FuG 240/E cavity magnetron-based Berlin AI radar).

Transceiving antennas used for the Neptun on twin-engined night fighters usually used a Hirschgeweih (stag's antlers) eight-dipole array with shorter elements than the previous 90 MHz SN-2 radar had used, or as an experimental fitment, the 90°-crossed twin-element set Yagi based Morgenstern single-mast-mounted array.

FuG 216: Experimental series to plan the further development

Installed in Fw 190 A-6/R11 and Bf 109 G-6

The aircraft were used by NJGr 10 until March 1944, after which some machines of 6./JG 300 (Kommando Plöger) were equipped.

  • Manufacturer: Flugfunkforschungsinstitut Oberpfaffenhofen (FFO, German for "airborne radio research institute" in Bavaria)
  • R1 version (backwards warning device)

:*Frequency: 182MHz

:*Power: 1.0kW

:*Transmitting and reveiving antennas each consist of twin dipoles, mounted under and above the wings, respectively

:* Single display device with distance readout

:*Frequency: 125MHz

:*Power: 1.2kW

:*Range: 500 to 3,500m

:*Antennas in the form of spikes or (Fw 190) as "antlers" on right and left wings

FuG 217: Installed mainly in Ju 88 G-6, only a few Bf 110 G-4, He 219 or Me 262 received the Neptun. It could be combined with the additional Elfe device to automatically measure the target distance and fire the guns at a pre-set range.

  • Manufacturer: FFO
  • R2 version (backward warning device)
  • J2 version (for single-engined night fighters)
  • Ausführung V/R (combined night fighter and backward warning device for two-engined fighters)

:*Two switchable frequencies: 158 and 187MHz

:*Search angle: 120°

:*Range: 400 to 4,000m

:*Spike or "antler" antennas

FuG 218: mass-produced

  • Manufacturer: Siemens / FFO
  • R3 version (backward warning device)
  • J3 version (for single-engined night-fighters)
  • V/R version (combined night fighter and backward warning device for two-engined fighters)

:*Six switchable frequencies: 158 to 187MHz

:*Search angle: 120°

:*Range: 120 to 5,000m

:*Weight: 50kg

:*R3 and J3 with spike antennas and V/R with "antler" antennas.

  • G/R version (combined night fighter and backward warning device for two-engined fighters)

:*Only one single device built, replacing the 2kW transmitter with a 30kW transmitter. Range increased to up to 10km. This device was intended for the Dornier Do 335. "Antler" antennas.