n. (context geology English) A conical structure formed by the eruption of rock fragments and wet mud along with hot gases.
Mud volcano or mud dome refers to formations created by geo-exuded mud or slurries, water and gases. There are several geological processes that may cause the formation of mud volcanoes. Mud volcanoes are not true igneous volcanoes as they produce no lava. The earth continuously exudes a mud-like substance, which may sometimes be referred to as a "mud volcano". Mud volcanoes may range in size from merely 1 or 2 meters high and 1 or 2 meters wide, to 700 meters high and 10 kilometers wide. Smaller mud exudations are sometimes referred to as mud-pots. The largest (man made) mud volcano is " Lusi" in Java, Indonesia, which is in diameter.
The mud produced by mud volcanoes is most typically formed as hot water, which has been heated deep below the earth's surface, begins to mix and blend with subterranean mineral deposits, thus creating the mud slurry exudate. This material is then forced upwards through a geological fault or fissure due to local subterranean pressure imbalances. Mud volcanoes are associated with subduction zones and about 1100 have been identified on or near land. The temperature of any given active mud volcano generally remains fairly steady and is much lower than the typical temperatures found in igneous volcanoes. Mud volcano temperatures can range from near to occasionally , some being used as popular "mud baths."
About 86% of the gas released from these structures is methane, with much less carbon dioxide and nitrogen emitted. Ejected materials are most often a slurry of fine solids suspended in water that may contain a mixture of salt, acids and various hydrocarbons.
Possible mud volcanoes have been identified on Mars.
Usage examples of "mud volcano".
In fact, I think it's entirely possible the same mud volcano buried the Spanish campsite five hundred years ago.
We had gone a hundred yards when there was a mud volcano behind us.