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Mayak

The Mayak Production Association (Russian: Производственное объединение «Маяк», from Маяк 'lighthouse') is one of the biggest nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation, housing plutonium production reactors and a reprocessing plant. The nuclear complex is located 150 km south-east of Ekaterinburg, between the towns of Kasli and Tatysh, and 72 km northwest of Chelyabinsk. The closest city, Ozyorsk, is the central administrative territorial district. As part of the Russian (formerly Soviet) nuclear weapons program, Mayak was formerly known as Chelyabinsk-40 and later as Chelyabinsk-65, referring to the postal codes of the site.

In 1957 Mayak was the site of the Kyshtym disaster, one of the worst nuclear accidents in history. During this catastrophe, a poorly maintained storage tank exploded, releasing 50-100 tons of high-level radioactive waste. The resulting radioactive cloud contaminated more than , contaminating an expansive territory in the eastern Urals and causing sickness and death from radiation poisoning. The Soviet regime kept this accident secret for about 30 years. The event was eventually rated at 6 on the seven-level INES scale, third in severity only to the disasters at Chernobyl in Ukraine and Fukushima in Japan.

Mayak (disambiguation)

Mayak (means " lighthouse" in Russian) may refer to one of the following

  • Radio Mayak, a Soviet/Russian radio station
  • Mayak, a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant
  • Mayak (film)
  • Mayak, Azerbaijan (disambiguation), places in Azerbaijan
  • Maiac, an urban settlement in Transnistria
  • Mayak (rocket family), a proposed Ukrainian family of carrier rockets
Mayak (film)

Mayak (, meaning The Lighthouse) is a 2006 Russian film directed by Mariya Saakyan. Young director by Maria Sahakyan made picture about the war in the Caucasus, but without the war.

Mayak (rocket family)

Mayak is a new family of Ukrainian launch vehicles under development by the Yuzhnoye Design Office, which would be manufactured by Yuzhmash. Due to the ongoing political and economic crisis in Ukraine, the feasibility and timetable of the project are unknown.

The family is built in a modular fashion on the basis of a single line of main engines with thrust of roughly for the first stage (RD-801, RD-810) and for the upper stage (RD-809K derived from RD-8). Engines, control systems and ground equipment are largely derived from components of existing rocket families Zenit and Tsyklon.

The Mayak family is designed to cover small-lift, medium-lift and heavy-lift requirements. Published parameters of various configurations are:

Version

Mayak-L1

Mayak-L2

Mayak-M1

Mayak-M2

Mayak-H3

Mayak-H5

Length (m)

27.3

36.9

47.4

61.0

63.0

64.0

Diameter (m)

2.7

3.0

3.9

3.9

3.9

3.9

Launch mass (t)

95

165

370

495 / 515

1218 / 1236

2010 / 2015

Number of stages

2

2

2

2 / 3

2 / 3

2 / 3

Stage 1 engines

1 × RD-801

2 × RD-801

2 × RD-810

4 × RD-810

12 × RD-810

20 × RD-810

Stage 2 engines

1 × RD-809K

2 × RD-809K

4 × RD-809K

1 × RD-801B

1 × RD-801B

1 × RD-801B

Optional stage 3 booster

colspan=3

RD-809K

RD-809K

RD-809K

Propellants

colspan=6 | LOX / kerosene

Payload to LEO (kg)

1,500

3,000

8,200

15,100 / –

45,500 / –

70,100 / –

Payload to GTO (kg)

2,400

– / 6,500

16,000 / 19,000

25,000 / 30,200