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Transmembrane glycoprotein NMB is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPNMB gene. Two transcript variants encoding 560 and 572 amino acid isoforms have been characterized for this gene in humans. The mouse and rat orthologues of GPNMB are known as DC-HIL and Osteoactivin (OA), respectively.

GPNMB is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein which shows homology to the pmel17 precursor, a melanocyte-specific protein.

GPNMB has been reported to be expressed in various cell types, including: melanocytes, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, dendritic cells, and it is overexpressed in various cancer types. In melanocytic cells and osteoclasts the GPNMB gene is transcritionally regulated by Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor.