Crossword clues for glycoprotein
n. (context protein English) A protein with covalently bonded carbohydrates.
n. a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains ( glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as glycosylation. Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated.
In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the extracellular segments are also often glycosylated. Glycoproteins are also often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell–cell interactions. It is important to distinguish endoplasmic reticulum-based glycosylation of the secretory system without of reversible cytosolic/nuclear glycosylation. Glycoprotein of the cytosol and nucleus can be modified through the reversible addition of a single GlcNAc residues that is consider reciprocal to phosphorylation and the functions of these are likely to be additional regulatory mechanism that controls phosphorylation-based signalling. In contrast, classical secretory glycosylation can be structurally essential. For example, inhibition of asparagine-linked, i.e. N-linked, glycosylation can prevent glycoprotein folding and full inhibition can be toxic to an individual cell. In contrast, perturbations of terminal processing, which occurs in the Golgi apparatus, is dispensable for isolated cells(as evidence by survival with glycosides inhibitors) but can lead to human disease (Congenital disorders of glycosylation) and can be lethal in animal models. It is therefore likely that the fine processing of glycans is important for endogeneous functionality, such as cell trafficking, but that this is likely to have been secondary to its role in host-pathogen interactions. A famous example of this latter effect is the ABO blood system.
Usage examples of "glycoprotein".
Bullock, S, Rose, S P R, and Zamani, R Characterisation and regional localisation of pre- and postsynaptic glycoproteins of the chick forebrain showing changed fucose incorporation following passive avoidance training.
In the hours that follow, these glycoproteins are inserted into the synaptic membranes, increasing the number of dendritic spines, and the synaptic contact areas in both left IMHV and left and right LPO.
Mathies group, like ours, was interested in the glycoproteins which they had shown to increase in synthesis during vanous forms of more conventional training procedures in rats, and Jork had scanned the biochemical literature to find specific inhibitors of glycoprotein synthesis.
Bourne, R C, Davies, D C, Stewart, M G, and Cooper, W Cerebral glycoprotein synthesis and long term memory formation in the chick following passive avoidance training depends on the nature of the aversive stimulus.
Bullock, S, Rose, S P R, and Zamani, R Characterisation and regional localisation of pre and postsynaptic glycoproteins of the chick forebrain showing changed fucose incorporation following passive avoidance training.