Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
n. 1 The practice or science of genetic modification. 2 genetic modification.
n. the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism [syn: gene-splicing, recombinant DNA technology]
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be removed, or "knocked out", using a nuclease. Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations.
An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria generated in 1973 and GM mice in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was first sold in the United States in December 2003.
Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, and genetically modified crops have been commercialized.
"Genetic Engineering" is a song by British band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, released as the first single from their fourth studio album Dazzle Ships. Frontman Andy McCluskey has noted that the song is not an attack on genetic engineering, as many assumed at the time, including veteran radio presenter Dave Lee Travis upon playing the song on BBC Radio 1. McCluskey stated: "I was very positive about the subject. People didn't listen to the lyrics...I think they automatically assumed it would be anti."
Charting at number 20 on the UK Singles Chart, "Genetic Engineering" ended the band's run of four consecutive Top 10 hits in the UK. It was also a Top 20 hit in several European territories, and peaked at number 5 in Spain. It missed the United States Billboard Hot 100 but made number 32 on the Mainstream Rock chart. US critic Ned Raggett retrospectively lauded the "soaring", "enjoyable" single in a positive review of Dazzle Ships for AllMusic, asserting: "Why it wasn't a hit remains a mystery."
Critics in prominent music publications have suggested that the first 45 seconds of the song were a direct influence on Radiohead's "Fitter Happier", which appears on that band's 1997 album OK Computer. Theon Weber in Stylus argued that the Radiohead track is "deeply indebted" to "Genetic Engineering". The synthesized speech featured on the track is taken from a Speak & Spell, an educational electronic toy developed by Texas Instruments in the 1970s intended to teach children with spelling.
Usage examples of "genetic engineering".
Anyway, in terms of the genetic engineering needed for certain environments, it would be a lot cheaper to engineer one, and then clone, even given the expense of cloning.
Let it die too let the poor thing die stop the machines the genetic engineering attempts the futile med.
I understand the whole genetic engineering problem, and there's plenty of it'tucked away in my head, not in any computer banks or notebooks.
Hendra's file showed he was born of such a process, which, given the genetic engineering of the time, would give him a life expectancy of around 120 years.
In our octospider species, thanks to the genetic engineering genius of our predecessors, an adult female octo is capable of producing, as the result of a sexual union with a mature male octospider, a single, infertile juvenile of limited life expectancy and somewhat reduced capability.
And, you remember, our original intent was to use the newly emerging technology of genetic engineering to make money.
In theory, if we were skilled enough at genetic engineering, we could move from any point in animal space to any other point.