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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
▪ Currently, much of the archival work reconstructing the administrative framework of the deposited documents is carried out retrospective to their creation.
▪ It summarises geological knowledge of metalliferous mineralisation, reviews current and past exploration, and describes its administrative and legal framework.
▪ Over 600 economists, businessmen and politicians discussed ways to improve the commercial, legal and administrative framework of East-West economic co-operation.
▪ The former provide the managerial and administrative framework for moving products from supplier to customer.
▪ This type of analytical framework posits a range of views from strong versions of racism to weak versions of ethnocentrism.
▪ Even if we accept this, it is questionable how useful an analytical framework is which has an untenable base.
▪ What makes Austen's work interesting is that it can never be reduced entirely to simple analytical frameworks.
▪ The science people learn in school can provide the basic framework.
▪ Perhaps more fundamentally, we take as given the basic framework of political institutions.
▪ Just how important efficiency considerations appear will depend on how far the reader accepts the basic theoretical framework.
▪ Within this basic framework the amount of time allocated to each stage varied considerably.
▪ The matrix diagram also provides a basic framework for working out the phases of the site.
▪ But it is all within the basic framework of that creature's subtle and physical structure, within the bounds of instinct.
▪ This will provide the basic framework for the necessary software re-organisation at a later stage.
▪ And that's just about it for the basic framework of the publication.
▪ These trends have to be placed within the broader framework of changes in the total labour force.
▪ It ignores specific historical and political constraints to discuss a broader welfare-maximizing Paretian framework.
▪ However, the commission also subsumes the precautionary principle under a broader framework of risk analysis.
▪ The whole business therefore needs to be seen in the broader framework of how you envisage your future.
▪ The significance given to explanations in terms of natural causes depends on higher-level assumptions embedded in a broader cultural framework.
▪ But it is in developing a coherent conceptual framework for such discussion that the book is least successful.
▪ Both theoretical and practical problems exist in fashioning out conceptual frameworks for the development of the continent.
▪ As we have discussed, there is now available a conceptual framework for adequately understanding the changing nature of contemporary civil society.
▪ Their conceptual framework is based on two central questions: What functions must be performed if the state is to persist?
▪ There are discernible cases of the Presocratics being influenced by conceptual frameworks, but they are not scientific frameworks.
▪ Utilitarian notions in the social sciences are not enough for even providing a conceptual framework for grasping what actually happens.
▪ Figure 2.2 represents a model of the information-seeking activity in a library and provides a conceptual framework for observing user behaviour.
▪ The thematic stage may be defined as the conceptual framework within which the story is told, presented and performed.
▪ The Government must establish the constitutional framework for stable and decentralised government.
▪ The constitutional framework makes the shareholders responsible for monitoring and supervising the directors of the company.
▪ Each speaker contributes to the conversation in terms of both the existing topic framework and his or her personal topic.
▪ Particular emphasis placed on the problems of regulating and supervising financial conglomerates within the existing national regulatory framework.
▪ Those who argue for participatory democracy believe active citizenship can not be established within the limitations set by the existing liberal-democratic framework.
▪ Reactions to change have tended to involve attempts to encompass new approaches within existing frameworks of practice and thinking.
▪ Even so, the retention of the existing framework in the burial alignment suggests continuity within an essentially Roman context.
▪ For these are, of their very nature, dependent on the acknowledgement of existing conceptual frameworks.
▪ Linguists not working within Labov's general framework are often less careful than he is about candid recording.
▪ The group's recent research has led to a general policy optimization framework for large macroeconomic models.
▪ Insert the flower sprigs into the foam, within the general framework.
▪ The main duties and responsibilities of the board provided a general framework but training developers had little to go on beyond this.
▪ This will require considerable competence on behalf of the teacher who will need to set the general framework.
▪ It remains, however, to place their work within a systematic and more general framework.
▪ They see their social life as a struggle for personal dignity in a general social framework that daily denies them this dignity.
▪ And what type of institutional framework would it require?
▪ Some of these freedoms can only be realized in a collective, institutional framework.
▪ Fully to appreciate the operation of the substantive rules of criminal law requires some appreciation of this complex institutional framework.
▪ Political power could create the institutional framework necessary for free criticism, including things like laboratories, periodicals and congresses.
▪ This institutional framework was imitated at all but the lowest levels of the party hierarchy.
▪ This means that, for most academics at least, research and teaching require an institutional framework.
▪ In particular, the cost of bankruptcy depends on the legal and institutional framework for handling it.
▪ The treaty would be administered through an institutional framework.
▪ In the twelfth century the canon lawyers devised an elaborate, and comparatively humane, legal framework for poor relief.
▪ Individuals from different cultures may not only contract together using different cultural assumptions, but using an entirely different legal framework.
▪ What is the point of a legal framework if companies can not get a court injunction to stop illegal strike action?
▪ To recap the method, direct taxes have a legal framework facilitating the assessment of the overall effective marginal tax rates.
▪ Furthermore, the Report contains a full historic, economic and social critique of consumer credit and proposed a new legal framework.
▪ It summarises geological knowledge of metalliferous mineralisation, reviews current and past exploration, and describes its administrative and legal framework.
▪ The simplified and more rational legal framework that it introduced is unified by some powerful principles that speak to those issues.
▪ Power contests were often set in a legal framework.
▪ The legislative and regulatory framework applied to gas exploration is also included in the study.
▪ It will be helpful to set them in the context of the legislative framework which we have applied for many years.
▪ How effective can he be in drawing Britain's fragmented medical and health science into a national framework?
▪ Particular emphasis placed on the problems of regulating and supervising financial conglomerates within the existing national regulatory framework.
▪ However, it is clear that ministerial control will extend well beyond the determination of a national curriculum framework.
▪ The chapter uses a national income accounting framework to estimate the economic importance of sport in the United Kingdom.
▪ Within it, the citizens of member states are provided with markets and employment opportunities much wider than national frameworks.
▪ Similarly, the National Income Accounting framework does not directly generate estimates of employment.
▪ There was no national competitive framework.
▪ The research as a whole will provide the vital national framework against which individual privatisation decisions can be considered.
▪ Although these are still in draft form, the Lead Body will use them to prepare a new framework for Vocational Qualifications.
▪ It did not produce new concepts or frameworks, although it did prevent unneeded competition among essentially identical approaches bearing different names.
▪ Throughout 1992 meetings were held across the country for representatives of industry and colleges to discuss the implications of the new framework.
▪ We see the smaller imperialist powers frantically attempting to maneuver within this new framework.
▪ Furthermore, the Report contains a full historic, economic and social critique of consumer credit and proposed a new legal framework.
▪ Strikes were made legal, and a new framework of industrial relations was established.
▪ It is likely that group awards in sciences will be developed for introduction in 1993 using the new framework of modules.
▪ In other words, it would need to be held in place by a strong political framework.
▪ He tries to provide for reform within a political framework and he introduces consensus, as a social control variable.
▪ The formal political framework facilitates an adversary relationship among political parties, but the underlying reality is a quest for compromise.
▪ Utopias can also be classed according to their political framework: there are two extremes, authoritarian and libertarian Utopias.
▪ Figure 12.4 shows the links between supervisors and institutions, and emphasises the complexity of the regulatory framework.
▪ The big polluters-oil and the power industries, Enron included-were allowed to draft their own regulatory framework.
▪ Act at all times in a manner that gives full effect to your obligations under the law and the regulatory framework.
▪ Particular emphasis placed on the problems of regulating and supervising financial conglomerates within the existing national regulatory framework.
▪ The legislative and regulatory framework applied to gas exploration is also included in the study.
▪ All the new autonomous communities established parliaments and a regulatory framework within four years of the promulgation of the new constitution.
▪ That power is given in clauses 1 and 2 and the regulatory framework is outlined in the accompanying schedules.
▪ Their legal status and their regulatory framework are another.
▪ But he accepted the social framework of his day and the status and role of women within it.
▪ Gender in Society will be of interest to advanced level students wishing to study gender issues within a social science framework.
▪ They see their social life as a struggle for personal dignity in a general social framework that daily denies them this dignity.
▪ In interpreting data, then, the gradual changes in the social framework at Oxford United have been taken into account.
▪ To understand the reasons for this we need to look at penal policy in a wider economic and social framework.
▪ Spenser is thinking of a class of person within a distinctive social framework.
▪ The work often occurs within a statutory framework because levels of risk and vulnerability are high.
▪ We will provide a statutory framework of protection, including employee representation on occupational pension trusts.
▪ This statutory framework will be discussed in Chapter 3.
▪ A good starting point is the statutory framework within which they are working.
▪ The information contained is intended to aid emergency planning and complement the theoretical framework used in safety assessments.
▪ We have no real theoretical framework, and our experiments are entirely empirical.
▪ The development of the theoretical framework remains therefore of high priority.
▪ The map represents an interpretation of the results of fieldwork sampling within a theoretical framework - the geological paradigm.
▪ This theoretical framework clearly has a strong historical dimension.
▪ The theoretical framework for co-citation analysis is described by Griffith and others.
▪ The central focus is the development of leisure interests during adolescence and the theoretical framework draws upon recent work in social cognition.
▪ Each theoretical framework gives a rather different account of the meaning and significance of major industrial changes as marks of structural change.
▪ The United States was to negotiate a framework agreement with the four countries.
▪ Both sides signed a four-point framework agreement.
▪ This, not the introduction of new machinery, was the grievance of the framework knitters.
▪ By 1863-67 Syston's register shows that the proportion of framework knitters had declined to 25 percent.
▪ At least 118 Leicestershire villages and hamlets had framework knitters amongst their inhabitants by 1800.
▪ William Hutton, apprenticed as a framework knitter, remembered great hunger, and in his case the mistress was his aunt.
▪ He had by this time been child factory worker, apprentice framework knitter and short-term seaman, so his reaction is significant.
▪ This would constitute information - data plus a contextual framework allowing a larger picture to be revealed.
▪ The framework of the agreement allows new targets for periods beyond 2010, leaving scope for further deep cuts in the future.
▪ From them I tried to build a framework around this time and its events.
▪ Oral history can be a means of helping pupils to build up a meaningful framework of chronology for the last 80 years.
▪ Sakhnovski, a team started erecting a replica of the steel framework of part of the thirty-fifth floor of the building.
▪ Local mineral plans will build on this framework with more site-specific proposals.
▪ Chambers' book thus played an important role in creating the framework of opinion into which Darwin's theory would be received.
▪ Limited government makes virtue possible by creating a framework for free action.
▪ We must strive to create the economic framework in which record numbers of jobs will once again become available.
▪ What the founders did was create a framework for an underground society that was waiting to emerge.
▪ The republics would need to create the legal framework and conditions for market economies.
▪ Both were inspired by the potential of law to create a disciplined framework for global technological and social change.
▪ Political power could create the institutional framework necessary for free criticism, including things like laboratories, periodicals and congresses.
▪ But it is in developing a coherent conceptual framework for such discussion that the book is least successful.
▪ Tivoli will continue to develop the framework alongside solutions for the time being.
▪ A number of models exist which can help to develop a conceptual framework to explain motivation at work.
▪ This, in itself, can develop a framework of trust within the school.
▪ We suggest that such a characterisation can be developed in terms of a topic framework.
▪ The aim of the present research is to develop this framework by deriving testable propositions and conducting appropriate experiments.
▪ Building a convincing verbal presentation means developing a framework.
▪ Dun &038; Bradstreet is currently developing a skeleton object-based framework and is in negotiations with several object software vendors to license technology.
▪ They also establish a framework for communications between the two.
▪ Government can play an essential role as a catalyst and in establishing the framework in which successful technology transfer can be achieved.
▪ This establishes a framework for agencies to work together to protect children from abuse.
▪ This paper put information theory on the map, establishing terminology and a framework that are still used today.
▪ An Act was passed in 1981 to pursue this aim and establish the new framework for special education suggested by Warnock.
▪ The party will also attempt to establish a legal framework for the protection of the environment.
▪ The Government must establish the constitutional framework for stable and decentralised government.
▪ But they establish the framework within which peace could be created if the parties wished to stop the fighting.
▪ These questions form the framework for discussion.
▪ It forms the framework for educating others about the disease, or about whatever action you subsequently decide to take.
▪ What the professional is doing is offering a framework within which parents can learn skills to solve their own problems.
▪ What they are offering through this framework are checklists to aid the development of a curriculum.
▪ Goffman has described how institutions offer individuals a framework for a moral career.
▪ This chapter has offered a framework for practitioners to use as they reflect professionally on their practice of assessing elders.
▪ Simmons proceeds to offer a stronger conceptual framework.
▪ Both operate within highly organised frameworks and infrastructures.
▪ Henceforth this system provided the framework for his preoccupation with the problems of the extinction and origin of species.
▪ It provides a framework by which adherents respond to events and developments.
▪ Nevertheless, a basically sound plan provides a framework on which you can build and progress in the light of experience and changing conditions.
▪ Peter thought it best to start with the diary because it provided a chronological framework.
▪ The Maastricht Treaty provides the right framework and objectives for this.
▪ This hierarchy provides the framework upon which textual units are dynamically aggregated to satisfy varying user requirements.
▪ Still used by archaeologists, it went only part of the way towards providing a historical framework for archaeological evidence, however.
▪ I reproduce one model procedure which sets out a management framework within which it can be achieved.
▪ A second hotly debated law set up the framework for a state Earthquake Authority.
▪ I wish now to set out such a framework.
▪ A topic has to be definite because of its function of setting the framework for interpreting the sentence as a whole.
▪ But the bill sets out a tight framework which will limit the judges' scope for blocking extra advocacy rights for solicitors.
▪ Power contests were often set in a legal framework.
▪ Where management has set the framework for efficient cleaning and supervision is adequate faults will rarely arise.
▪ This article sets out a framework for the reform of disabled employment rights.
▪ It is likely that group awards in sciences will be developed for introduction in 1993 using the new framework of modules.
▪ Economists use a similar framework to explain the supply side of the supply-demand equation.
▪ In the rest of this section, therefore, we have used Atkin's framework to draw out some of these similarities.
▪ A rigid metal framework supported the sculpture.
▪ How do you feel you can develop your skills within the framework of the team?
▪ The aim of this legislation is to provide a framework for employers and trade unions to operate in.
▪ We need a legal and political framework that is favourable to business.
▪ In this framework, policies that encourage investment are good; policies that make investment less profitable are bad.
▪ Nor have we tried to decide whether rules and reasons can only be considered in a hermeneutic framework incompatible with causal explanation.
▪ The civil zone still poses many difficult problems of chronology in the framework of what is known of the historical narrative.
▪ The conceptual framework it has produced is particularly pertinent to the discussion here.
▪ The management of schools is changing and decisions have to be made in the context of a financial framework.
▪ The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple framework in which to address some of these neglected questions.
▪ The science people learn in school can provide the basic framework.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Framework \Frame"work`\, n.

  1. The work of framing, or the completed work; the frame or constructional part of anything; as, the framework of society.

    A staunch and solid piece of framework.

  2. Work done in, or by means of, a frame or loom.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1640s, "structure for enclosing or supporting," from frame (n.) + work (n.). Figurative sense "adjusted arrangement" is from 1816.


n. 1 (context literally English) The arrangement of support beams that represent a building's general shape and size. 2 (context figuratively English) The larger branches of a tree that determine its shape. 3 (context figuratively especially in computing English) A basic conceptual structure.

  1. n. a simplified description of a complex entity or process; "the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory systems" [syn: model, theoretical account]

  2. the underlying structure; "restoring the framework of the bombed building"; "it is part of the fabric of society" [syn: fabric]

  3. a structure supporting or containing something [syn: frame, framing]

Framework (office suite)

Framework, launched in 1984, was the first office suite to run on the PC 8086 with DOS operating system. ValDocs, an even earlier integrated suite, actually comparable to the original Macintosh of 1984 and Apple Lisa of 1982 was produced by Epson, a complete integrated work station based on the previous Zilog Z80 processor and CP/M operating system with GUI and " WYSIWYG" typography on the monitor and printing. Framework offered all this however in the first all-in-one package to run on any PC platform. It was preceded by a few months by its close rival Lotus Symphony. Unlike other integrated products Framework was not created as "plug-in" modules with similar look and feel but as a single windowing workspace representing a desktop metaphor that could manage and outline "Frames" sharing a common underlying format. The initial release included about a dozen or so frame types (identified by a FRED function, @frametype). Frame types included containers which could be filled up with other frames, empty frames which could become other type of frames based on user input, formulas embedded in them or program output targeting them, word processor frames, flat- database frames and spreadsheet as well as graphic frames. Later versions included a frame type that can hold compiled executable code and the current version include an external type handled by separate applications running on the host operating system.

Framework built-in interpreter, the FRED (Frame Editor) computer language, was based on Lisp and included an Eval function. It applied to all text and frame type across the product.

Framework could be considered a predecessor to the present GUI window metaphor as well as integrated interpreters. The spreadsheet program was superior in its day, offering true 3D capability, where spreadsheets could form outline which can be "opened" to reveal a separate spreadsheet as well as other frame types—a feat of sheer convenient function never again seen and further enhanced in much later versions.

Robert Carr and Marty Mazner founded Forefront Corporation to develop Framework in 1983. In July of that year, they approached Ashton-Tate to provide the capital and to later market the product. Together with a team of six other individuals, Carr and company released the original Framework. The product proved successful enough that in 1985, Ashton-Tate bought Forefront, a year sooner than planned.

The original team, now working for Ashton-Tate, continued to enhance the product producing Framework II (1985), Framework III (1988-1989) and finally in 1991, the last Ashton-Tate's version, Framework IV. Beginning with Framework II, the company also produced Framework II Runtime and Framework II Developer's Toolkit. These products allowed application developers to create business applications using the built-in FRED programming language.

Although Ashton-Tate humorously advertised that " Lotus uses Framework", Framework failed to gain more than a fraction of the market share needed to become a workplace standard. Lotus 1-2-3 was able to successfully capture most of the spreadsheet market and after a number of setbacks regarding Ashton-Tate's flag product, dBASE, Borland bought Ashton-Tate and later sold Framework to Selections & Functions, Inc. Present versions include the FrameworkPascal compiler which extend Framework with Windows API interface.

Framework works on most versions of Microsoft Windows. Framework 7 was the last version which can be run on Windows 95/98/ME or on DOS. Framework 8 and 9 only run on Windows XP.

Beginning with Framework V (Framework 5), Selections and Functions introduced only a few features - mainly features required to prevent the office suite from becoming out-of-date. For example, Framework VII (Framework 7) introduced long file names, the Euro symbol and the ability to display pictures in Framework. Framework VIII (Framework 8) introduced the ability to display JPEG and .BMP files and to load such files into Framework databases. Of particular importance, all of the Selections and Functions' versions of Framework added the ability to share "cut and paste" (memory buffer data) between Windows and Framework. For detailed feature lists and screen shots see the Framework homepage listed below. Selections and Functions is nevertheless still selling Framework - although no price is available publicly.

Programmers at Work (ISBN 0-914845-71-3) credits Robert Carr as the designer and principal developer of Framework.


Framework may refer to:

Framework (software)

Usage examples of "framework".

Besides the rustling of the gas cells there was the creaking of the aluminium framework along which he walked and the musical cries of thousands of steel bracing wires.

The framework in which these articles were placed virtually continued to be the apologetic theology, for this maintained a doctrine of God and the world, which seemed to correspond to the earliest tradition as much as it ran counter to the Gnostic theses.

In the physical framework of general relativity and in the corresponding mathematical framework of Riemannian geometry there is a single concept of distance, and it can acquire arbitrarily small values.

Thus, while certain features of consciousness may be perceived only within the conceptual framework of a field theory, others may be observed only in terms of an atomistic theory.

The framework for a baldachin had been erected the day before, at the spot in the center where the Stone of Destiny was to stand.

Ingles at once appropriated William Bates for a walk through the framework of the unfinished dormitories.

It was a typical field cage of the type that cadgers wore on their backs during a hunta cumbersome framework that loomed high above the shoulders and that would have been staggeringly heavy on Earth.

It should be made of light framework, and covered with brown cambric, on which are painted Indian hieroglyphics.

Upon the ground in the corner where it had been thrown lay a drum and cymbals fastened to a framework of wire and straps.

The sky was full of dodecahedral frameworks, triangular faces glimmering, drifting like angular soap bubbles.

It might even seem that these thoughts are sound enough to give some kind of argument for Cartesian dualism, it only being within that framework that they make any sense.

This piece of steel, after having been tempered, was fixed in as firm a way as possible in a solid framework planted in the ground, only a few feet from the great fall, the motive power of which the engineer intended to utilize.

She and Pease were staking down the first tent while Fleat and GoldFeather were starting on the second, lifting the heavy leather covers over the rigid framework of wooden poles.

He went to one of the thick logs that supported the framework of the flume and wrapped his arms and legs around it.

The iron framework was ornamented at intervals with outbreaks of iron leafage and iron fruitage, which had grown rusty with time.