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Eleazar (pronounced ; ) or Elazar was a priest in the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament), the second Kohen Gadol (High Priest), succeeding his father Aaron after Aaron's death. He was a nephew of Moses.

Eleazar played a number of roles during the course of the Israelites' wilderness wanderings, from creating the plating for the altar from the firepans of Korah's assembly, to performing the ritual of the Red Heifer. After the death of his older brothers Nadab and Abihu, he and his younger brother Ithamar were appointed to the charge of the sanctuary. His wife, a daughter of Putiel, bore him Phinehas, who would eventually succeed him as Kohen Gadol.

Leviticus 10:16-18 records an incident when Moses was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, for failing to eat a sin offering inside the Tabernacle in accordance with the regulations set out in the preceding chapters of Leviticus regarding the entitlement of the priests to a share of the offerings they made on behalf of the Israelite people.

As the Israelites moved through the wilderness during the Exodus journey, Eleazar was responsible for carrying the oil for the lampstand, the sweet incense, the daily grain offering and the anointing oil, and also for oversight of the carriage of the Ark of the Covenant, table for showbread, altar and other Tabernacle fittings which were transported by the Kohathite section of the Levite tribe. Following the rebellion against Moses' leadership recorded in Numbers 16, Eleazar was charged with taking the rebels' bronze censers and hammering them into a covering for the altar, to act as a reminder of the failed rebellion and the restriction of the priesthood to the Aaronid dynasty.

On Mount Hor he was clothed with the sacred vestments, which Moses took from his father Aaron and put upon him as successor to his father in the high priest's office, before Aaron's death. Eleazar held the office of high priest for more than twenty years. He took part with Moses in numbering the people, and assisted at the inauguration of Joshua.

He assisted in the distribution of the land after the conquest. When he died, he "was buried at Gibeah, which had been allotted to his son Phinehas in the hill country of Ephraim". The Hill of Phinehas related in the Bible is associated with the location of the village of Awarta in the Samarian section of the current day West Bank. Due to the uncertain security situation, the Israel Defense Forces limit visits to the site by Jews to one annual night close to the 5th of Shevat (around January–February) on the Hebrew calendar..

The high-priesthood remained in the family of Eleazar until the time of Eli, into whose family it passed. Eli was a descendant of Ithamar, Eleazar's brother. The high priesthood was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok after Abiathar was cast out by Solomon.

According to Samaritan sources, a civil war broke out between the Sons of Ithamar and the Sons of Phinehas - which resulted in the division of those who followed Eli and those who followed High Priest Uzzi ben Bukki at Mount Gerizim Bethel (a third group followed neither). Likewise according to Samaritan sources, the high-priestly line of the sons of Phinehas died out in 1624 C.E. with the death of the 112th High Priest Shlomyah ben Pinhas, when the priesthood was transferred to the sons of Itamar; see article Samaritan for list of High Priests from 1613 to 2004-the 131st High priest of the Samaritans is Elazar ben Tsedaka ben Yitzhaq.

Eleazar (son of Dodai)

Eleazar (, Eləʻāzār; 10th or 9th century) was one of the Three Mighty Warriors and an officer under David, according to 2 Samuel and 1 Chronicles. His father was Dodai or Dodo, and he was a Benjamite through his ancestor Ahoah.

While fighting the Philistines at Ephes Dammim alongside Jashobeam and Shammah, the other two warriors of the Three, Eleazar fought so long and hard his hand clamped onto his sword.

Eleazar, as part of the Three, broke through Philistine lines in Bethlehem to get a drink for David from a well near the gate while they were encamped in the Cave of Adullam, but David poured the water out as a drink offering to Yahweh, saying, "Is it not the blood of men who went at the risk of their lives?"

Eleazar (disambiguation)

Eleazar is a common Hebrew name. It may refer to:

Eleazar (son of Pinhas)

Eleazar was son of Pinhas associated with the priests in taking charge of the sacred vessels brought back to Jerusalem after the Babylonian Exile. ( Ezra 8:33)

Category:Hebrew Bible people

Eleazar (son of Aminadab)

Eleazar, son of Aminadab, was an inhabitant of Kiriath-Jearim and was "consecrated" to guard the Ark of the Covenant, while it remained in the house of his father Abinadab (1 Samuel 7:1 ).

Category:Hebrew Bible people

Eleazar (name)

Eleazar (, meaning God helps, El-azar) is a common Jewish given name for a male.

Eleazar (2 Maccabees)

Eleazar was a Jewish man whose story is portrayed in 2 Maccabees 6. Verse 18 describes him as "one of the leading teachers of the law," and "of distinguished bearing." We learn from verse 24 that he was ninety at the time of his death. Under a persecution instigated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Eleazar was forced to open his mouth and eat pork, but he spat it out and submitted to flogging. He was then privately permitted to eat meat that he could pretend was pork, but he refused and was flogged to death. The narrator relates that in his death he left "a heroic example and a glorious memory," (verse 31).

Along with the woman with seven sons depicted in the following chapter, Eleazar, although not actually a Maccabee, is celebrated as one of the "Holy Maccabean Martyrs" by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. Their feast day is August 1.

Eleazar (High Priest)

Eleazar was a Jewish High Priest (c. 260–245 BCE) during the time of the Second Temple. He was the son of Onias I and brother of Simon I.

Eleazar was the high priest involved in communication with Ptolemy II Philadelphus discussed in the Letter of Aristeas or Pseudo-Aristeas. According to the letter, Eleazar sent seventy two scholars, six from each of the tribes of Israel to the island of Pharos provide the Library of Alexandria with a Greek translation of the Hebrew Law, also called the Septuagint.

He was succeeded by his uncle Manasseh.