Dawsonia is the scientific name of several genera of organisms and may refer to:
- Dawsonia, a genus of moss some reaching up to 65cm (two feet) in length
- Dawsonia, an eodiscoid trilobite
- Dawsonia, a Palaeozoic problematicum.
Dawsonia is a genus of acrocarpous mosses. Dawsonia, along with other members of the order Polytrichales, are taller than most mosses and have thicker leaves. Their sporophytes have conducting systems analogous to those of vascular plants. Dawsonia superba is found in New Zealand, Australia and New Guinea. Dawsonia longifolia is found in the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia. Dawsonia superba and Dawsonia longifolia may be the same species.