Crossword clues for copal
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Copal \Co"pal\ (k[=o]"pal; 277), [Sp., fr. Mexican copalli, a
generic name of resins.
--Clavigero.] A resinous substance flowing spontaneously from trees of Zanzibar, Madagascar, and South America ( Trachylobium Hornemannianum, Trachylobium verrucosum, and Hymen[ae]a Courbaril), and dug from earth where forests have stood in Africa; -- used chiefly in making varnishes.
n. A resinous exudation from various tropical trees used chiefly in making varnishes and printing ink.
n. a brittle aromatic resin used in varnishes
Copal is a name given to tree resin from the copal tree Protium copal ( Burseraceae) that is particularly identified with the aromatic resins used by the cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica as ceremonially burned incense and other purposes. More generally, the term copal describes resinous substances in an intermediate stage of polymerization and hardening between "gummier" resins and amber. The word copal is derived from the Nahuatl language word , meaning " incense"."The word 'copal' first appeared in the English language in 1577. John Frampton wrote in his 'Englished' edition of Nicolas Monardes' Dos libros, el veno que trata de todas las cosas que traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales, originally published in 1596(Monardes 1577): 'They doe bring from the Newe Spaine [Mexico] twoo kindes of Rosine... the one is called Copall.'
"Over three centuries later, Walter Hough (1912) wrote: 'There is a great confusion as to the identity of copal, the name, according to some writers, being used to cover a number of gums. It is possible that the confusion has arisen from post conquest times when errors multiplied rapidly as Mexican culture slipped swiftly into the background, for the earliest reliable chroniclers are clear as to the commonest use of the gum which we know as copal, and whose characteristic odor would place it distinctly in the first rank of incense materials.'
"[...] This agrees with the etymology of the word 'copal' from the Nahuatl copalli, literally 'with the help of this path' or 'thanks to this path' (Corzo 1978).
"Pom is derived from the Mayan po-, a root word meaning 'in harmony with the action of fire,' and -om, a suffix which denotes 'activity,' literally 'that that which is to be burnt' ([[#CITEREFBarrera_Mar.C3.ADnBarrera_V.C3.A1squezL.C3.B3pez_Franco1976|Barrera Marín, Barrera [Vásquez] Vázquez, and López Franco 1976]])."
"They doe bring from the Newe Spaine [Mexico] twoo kindes of Rosine... the one is called Copall." ( Historia medicinal de las cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales)
"There is a great confusion as to the identity of copal, the name, according to some writers, being used to cover a number of gums. It is possible that the confusion has arisen from post conquest times when errors multiplied rapidly as Mexican culture slipped swiftly into the background, for the earliest reliable chroniclers are clear as to the commonest use of the gum which we know as copal, and whose characteristic odor would place it distinctly in the first rank of incense materials."
"Copalli. incienso." ( Vocabulario en lengua castellana y mexicana)
To the pre-Columbian Maya and contemporary Maya peoples it is known in the various Mayan languages as (or a close variation thereof), although the word itself has been demonstrated to be a loanword to Mayan from Mixe–Zoquean languages.
Copal is still used by a number of indigenous peoples of Mexico and Central America as an incense, during sweat lodge ceremonies and Sacred Mushroom ceremonies. It is available in different forms. The hard, amber-like yellow copal is a less expensive version. The white copal, a hard, milky, sticky substance, is a more expensive version of the same resin.
Copal resin from Hymenaea verrucosa is also found in East Africa and is used in incense. By the 18th century, Europeans found it to be a valuable ingredient in making a good wood varnish. It became widely used in the manufacture of furniture and carriages. It was also sometimes used as a picture varnish. By the late 19th and early 20th century varnish manufacturers in England and America were using it on train carriages, greatly swelling its demand.
In 1859 Americans consumed 68 percent of the East African trade, which was controlled through the Sultan of Zanzibar, with Germany receiving 24 percent. The American Civil War and the creation of the Suez Canal led to Germany, India and Hong Kong taking the majority by the end of that century.
East Africa apparently had a higher amount of subfossil copal, which is found one or two meters below living copal trees from roots of trees that may have lived thousands of years earlier. This subfossil copal produces a harder varnish. Subfossil copal is also well-known from New Zealand ( Kauri gum), Japan, the Dominican Republic, Colombia and Madagascar. It often has inclusions and is sometimes sold as "young amber". Copal can be easily distinguished from genuine amber by its lighter citrine colour and its surface getting tacky with a drop of acetone or chloroform.
Copal is a type of resin.
Copal may also refer to:
- Bursera glabrifolia, a tree commonly used in woodcarving
- Bursera bipinnata, another species of Bursera, also used in woodcarving
- Nidec Copal Corporation, a Japanese photographic, electronic, optical and mechanical manufacturer
Usage examples of "copal".
He lives in southern France, grows his own poppies, makes real varnishes from dammar to copal, and gets his resins from all the right places, from India to the Levant.
Pummice, of Copal and Pummice, the splendid house-painters at Dollington, arrived with his artists and charwomen to give the Assembly Room its annual touching-up and bedizenment, preparatory to the Hunt Ball.
Stains -- Natural Dyes -- Artificial Pigments -- Coal Tar Dyes -- Staining Marble and Artificial Stone -- Dyeing, Bleaching and Imitation of Bone, Horn and Ivory -- Imitation of Tortoiseshell for Combs: Yellows, Dyeing Nuts -- Ivory -- Wood Dyeing -- Imitation of Mahogany: Dark Walnut, Oak, Birch-Bark, Elder-Marquetry, Walnut, Walnut-Marquetry, Mahogany, Spanish Mahogany, Palisander and Rose Wood, Tortoiseshell, Oak, Ebony, Pear Tree -- Black Dyeing Processes with Penetrating Colours -- Varnishes and Polishes: English Furniture Polish, Vienna Furniture Polish, Amber Varnish, Copal Varnish, Composition for Preserving Furniture -- Index.
There were cottonwoods with feathery foliage and pendant strings of hard-hulled nuts, silkwoods and greenhearts and cedars, stands of fibrous copal trees.
Their ears, frightfully distended, held dangling to them disks of wood and plates of gum copal.