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Cichlasoma is a genus of fish in the cichlid family. The genus was previously very large (a wastebasket taxon), including cichlids from Texas, North America, through all of Central America to parts of South America.

Reclassification and subsequent splitting of the genus by Sven O. Kullander and other ichthyologists has resulted in removing many of the former species from the genus Cichlasoma. Several taxa now being placed within separate genera such as Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Herichthys, Heros, Nandopsis, Parachromis, Thorichthys, Vieja and a number of others.