Vilcabamba may refer to:
- Vilcabamba, Peru
- Vilcabamba, Ecuador, town in the province of Loja, Ecuador
- Vilcabamba (short story), a 2010 science fiction short story by Harry Turtledove
"Vilcabamba" is a 2010 science fiction short story by Harry Turtledove, notable both for its content and for the writer's unusual decision to publish it free online and thus waive the royalties from its publication (see external link below).