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Latin word and derivatives

means in Latin either uproar and disturbance, or crowd.

Relating to the meaning of "crowd", it may refer more specifically to any text in the biblical Passion of Jesus which is spoken by any group of people, including the disciples, the Jews, or the soldiers. In musical settings it has been broadened to refer to any direct address in the Passion, except the words of Jesus.

The term was further used during the Sandinista regime of Nicaragua in the late 1970s and 1980s, referring to crowds of boisterous, sometimes violent supporters.

Arabic word and derivatives

In Arabicturba has two meanings. One is that of a tomb, plot in a cemetery, or mausoleum. It has been adopted with a similar meaning into Turkish as Türbe.

The second, related meaning, is that of earth, dirt, soil, ground. Shi'as may put their foreheads on a piece of clay ("dust") during prayers, which they call "turba", also written " turbah".

Usage examples of "turba".

Flebant omnes pariter, senex et adultus, Turbae cum militibus, cultus et incultus.