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Tuoba was a clan of the Xianbei in ancient China. In the Old Turkic language, they were referred to as Tabgach.

The Tuoba founded the Northern Wei (386–535) around the Yellow River delta and became increasingly sinicized. As a result, from 496, the name "Tuoba" disappeared by an edict of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei, who adopted the Chinese language surname of Yuan instead. A surviving branch of the Tuoba established the state of Tuyuhun before submitting as a vassal of the Tang dynasty; they later established the later Western Xia, whose rulers adopted the Chinese surname Li .