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The Collaborative International Dictionary
Torah

Laws \Laws\ n. the first five books of the Old Testament, also called The Law and Torah.

Syn: Pentateuch, Law of Moses, Torah.

Torah

Law \Law\ (l[add]), n. [OE. lawe, laghe, AS. lagu, from the root of E. lie: akin to OS. lag, Icel. l["o]g, Sw. lag, Dan. lov; cf. L. lex, E. legal. A law is that which is laid, set, or fixed; like statute, fr. L. statuere to make to stand. See Lie to be prostrate.]

  1. In general, a rule of being or of conduct, established by an authority able to enforce its will; a controlling regulation; the mode or order according to which an agent or a power acts.

    Note: A law may be universal or particular, written or unwritten, published or secret. From the nature of the highest laws a degree of permanency or stability is always implied; but the power which makes a law, or a superior power, may annul or change it.

    These are the statutes and judgments and laws, which the Lord made.
    --Lev. xxvi. 46.

    The law of thy God, and the law of the King.
    --Ezra vii. 26.

    As if they would confine the Interminable . . . Who made our laws to bind us, not himself.
    --Milton.

    His mind his kingdom, and his will his law.
    --Cowper.

  2. In morals: The will of God as the rule for the disposition and conduct of all responsible beings toward him and toward each other; a rule of living, conformable to righteousness; the rule of action as obligatory on the conscience or moral nature.

  3. The Jewish or Mosaic code, and that part of Scripture where it is written, in distinction from the gospel; hence, also, the Old Testament. Specifically: the first five books of the bible, called also Torah, Pentatech, or Law of Moses.

    What things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law . . . But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets.
    --Rom. iii. 19, 21.

  4. In human government:

    1. An organic rule, as a constitution or charter, establishing and defining the conditions of the existence of a state or other organized community.

    2. Any edict, decree, order, ordinance, statute, resolution, judicial, decision, usage, etc., or recognized, and enforced, by the controlling authority.

  5. In philosophy and physics: A rule of being, operation, or change, so certain and constant that it is conceived of as imposed by the will of God or by some controlling authority; as, the law of gravitation; the laws of motion; the law heredity; the laws of thought; the laws of cause and effect; law of self-preservation.

  6. In mathematics: The rule according to which anything, as the change of value of a variable, or the value of the terms of a series, proceeds; mode or order of sequence.

  7. In arts, works, games, etc.: The rules of construction, or of procedure, conforming to the conditions of success; a principle, maxim; or usage; as, the laws of poetry, of architecture, of courtesy, or of whist.

  8. Collectively, the whole body of rules relating to one subject, or emanating from one source; -- including usually the writings pertaining to them, and judicial proceedings under them; as, divine law; English law; Roman law; the law of real property; insurance law.

  9. Legal science; jurisprudence; the principles of equity; applied justice.

    Reason is the life of the law; nay, the common law itself is nothing else but reason.
    --Coke.

    Law is beneficence acting by rule.
    --Burke.

    And sovereign Law, that state's collected will O'er thrones and globes elate, Sits empress, crowning good, repressing ill.
    --Sir W. Jones.

  10. Trial by the laws of the land; judicial remedy; litigation; as, to go law.

    When every case in law is right.
    --Shak.

    He found law dear and left it cheap.
    --Brougham.

  11. An oath, as in the presence of a court. [Obs.] See Wager of law, under Wager. Avogadro's law (Chem.), a fundamental conception, according to which, under similar conditions of temperature and pressure, all gases and vapors contain in the same volume the same number of ultimate molecules; -- so named after Avogadro, an Italian scientist. Sometimes called Amp[`e]re's law. Bode's law (Astron.), an approximative empirical expression of the distances of the planets from the sun, as follows: -- Mer. Ven. Earth. Mars. Aste. Jup. Sat. Uran. Nep. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 3 6 12 24 48 96 192 384 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --- --- 4 7 10 16 28 52 100 196 388 5.9 7.3 10 15.2 27.4 52 95.4 192 300 where each distance (line third) is the sum of 4 and a multiple of 3 by the series 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, etc., the true distances being given in the lower line. Boyle's law (Physics), an expression of the fact, that when an elastic fluid is subjected to compression, and kept at a constant temperature, the product of the pressure and volume is a constant quantity, i. e., the volume is inversely proportioned to the pressure; -- known also as Mariotte's law, and the law of Boyle and Mariotte. Brehon laws. See under Brehon. Canon law, the body of ecclesiastical law adopted in the Christian Church, certain portions of which (for example, the law of marriage as existing before the Council of Tent) were brought to America by the English colonists as part of the common law of the land. --Wharton. Civil law, a term used by writers to designate Roman law, with modifications thereof which have been made in the different countries into which that law has been introduced. The civil law, instead of the common law, prevails in the State of Louisiana. --Wharton. Commercial law. See Law merchant (below). Common law. See under Common. Criminal law, that branch of jurisprudence which relates to crimes. Ecclesiastical law. See under Ecclesiastical. Grimm's law (Philol.), a statement (propounded by the German philologist Jacob Grimm) of certain regular changes which the primitive Indo-European mute consonants, so-called (most plainly seen in Sanskrit and, with some changes, in Greek and Latin), have undergone in the Teutonic languages. Examples: Skr. bh[=a]t[.r], L. frater, E. brother, G. bruder; L. tres, E. three, G. drei, Skr. go, E. cow, G. kuh; Skr. dh[=a] to put, Gr. ti-qe`-nai, E. do, OHG, tuon, G. thun. See also lautverschiebung. Kepler's laws (Astron.), three important laws or expressions of the order of the planetary motions, discovered by John Kepler. They are these: (1) The orbit of a planet with respect to the sun is an ellipse, the sun being in one of the foci. (2) The areas swept over by a vector drawn from the sun to a planet are proportioned to the times of describing them. (3) The squares of the times of revolution of two planets are in the ratio of the cubes of their mean distances. Law binding, a plain style of leather binding, used for law books; -- called also law calf. Law book, a book containing, or treating of, laws. Law calf. See Law binding (above). Law day. (a) Formerly, a day of holding court, esp. a court-leet. (b) The day named in a mortgage for the payment of the money to secure which it was given. [U. S.] Law French, the dialect of Norman, which was used in judicial proceedings and law books in England from the days of William the Conqueror to the thirty-sixth year of Edward III. Law language, the language used in legal writings and forms. Law Latin. See under Latin. Law lords, peers in the British Parliament who have held high judicial office, or have been noted in the legal profession. Law merchant, or Commercial law, a system of rules by which trade and commerce are regulated; -- deduced from the custom of merchants, and regulated by judicial decisions, as also by enactments of legislatures. Law of Charles (Physics), the law that the volume of a given mass of gas increases or decreases, by a definite fraction of its value for a given rise or fall of temperature; -- sometimes less correctly styled Gay Lussac's law, or Dalton's law. Law of nations. See International law, under International. Law of nature. (a) A broad generalization expressive of the constant action, or effect, of natural conditions; as, death is a law of nature; self-defense is a law of nature. See Law, 4. (b) A term denoting the standard, or system, of morality deducible from a study of the nature and natural relations of human beings independent of supernatural revelation or of municipal and social usages. Law of the land, due process of law; the general law of the land. Laws of honor. See under Honor. Laws of motion (Physics), three laws defined by Sir Isaac Newton: (1) Every body perseveres in its state of rest or of moving uniformly in a straight line, except so far as it is made to change that state by external force. (2) Change of motion is proportional to the impressed force, and takes place in the direction in which the force is impressed. (3) Reaction is always equal and opposite to action, that is to say, the actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and in opposite directions. Marine law, or Maritime law, the law of the sea; a branch of the law merchant relating to the affairs of the sea, such as seamen, ships, shipping, navigation, and the like. --Bouvier. Mariotte's law. See Boyle's law (above). Martial law.See under Martial. Military law, a branch of the general municipal law, consisting of rules ordained for the government of the military force of a state in peace and war, and administered in courts martial. --Kent. --Warren's Blackstone. Moral law, the law of duty as regards what is right and wrong in the sight of God; specifically, the ten commandments given by Moses. See Law, 2. Mosaic law, or Ceremonial law. (Script.) See Law, 3. Municipal law, or Positive law, a rule prescribed by the supreme power of a state, declaring some right, enforcing some duty, or prohibiting some act; -- distinguished from international law and constitutional law. See Law,

    1. Periodic law. (Chem.) See under Periodic.

      Roman law, the system of principles and laws found in the codes and treatises of the lawmakers and jurists of ancient Rome, and incorporated more or less into the laws of the several European countries and colonies founded by them. See Civil law (above).

      Statute law, the law as stated in statutes or positive enactments of the legislative body.

      Sumptuary law. See under Sumptuary.

      To go to law, to seek a settlement of any matter by bringing it before the courts of law; to sue or prosecute some one.

      To take the law of, or To have the law of, to bring the law to bear upon; as, to take the law of one's neighbor.
      --Addison.

      Wager of law. See under Wager.

      Syn: Justice; equity.

      Usage: Law, Statute, Common law, Regulation, Edict, Decree. Law is generic, and, when used with reference to, or in connection with, the other words here considered, denotes whatever is commanded by one who has a right to require obedience. A statute is a particular law drawn out in form, and distinctly enacted and proclaimed. Common law is a rule of action founded on long usage and the decisions of courts of justice. A regulation is a limited and often, temporary law, intended to secure some particular end or object. An edict is a command or law issued by a sovereign, and is peculiar to a despotic government. A decree is a permanent order either of a court or of the executive government. See Justice.

Torah

Torah \To"rah\, Tora \To"ra\, n.; pl. Toroth. [Heb. t[=o]r[=a]h.] (Jewish Lit.)

  1. A law; a precept.

    A considerable body of priestly Toroth.
    --S. R. Driver.

  2. Divine instruction; revelation.

    Tora, . . . before the time of Malachi, is generally used of the revelations of God's will made through the prophets.
    --T. K. Cheyne.

  3. The Pentateuch or ``Law of Moses.''

    The Hebrew Bible is divided into three parts: (1) The Torah, ``Law,'' or Pentateuch. (2) The Prophets (Nevi'im in Hebrew) . . . (3) The Kethubim, or the ``Writings,'' generally termed Hagiographa. From the first letters of these three parts, the word ``Tanakh'' is derived, and used by Jews as the name of their Bible, the Christian Old Testament.
    --C. H. H. Wright.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
Torah

"the Pentateuch," 1570s, from Hebrew torah, literally "instruction, law," verbal noun from horah "he taught, showed."

Wikipedia
Torah

The Torah (; , "Instruction, Teaching"), or the Pentateuch , is the central reference of the religious Judaic tradition. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books of the twenty-four books of the Tanakh, and it usually includes the perushim (rabbinic commentaries). The term "Torah" means instruction and offers a way of life for those who follow it; it can mean the continued narrative from Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, and it can even mean the totality of Jewish teaching, culture and practice. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the foundational narrative of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, and their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws ( halakha).

In rabbinic literature the word "Torah" denotes both the five books ( "Torah that is written") as well as the Oral Torah (, "Torah that is spoken"). The Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash.

According to rabbinic tradition, all of the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God through Moses, a prophet, some of them at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, and all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah we have today. According to a Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and was used as the blueprint for Creation.

The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity (c. 600 BCE), based on earlier written and oral traditions, and that it was completed by the period of Achaemenid rule (c. 400 BCE). However, the 2004 discovery of fragments of the Hebrew Bible at Ketef Hinnom dating to the 7th century BCE, and thus to before the Babylonian captivity, suggests that at least some elements of the written Torah, were current before the Babylonian exile.

Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a sofer on parchment in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the halachically-prescribed tune, in the presence of a congregation. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases for Jewish communal life.

Torah (disambiguation)

Torah refers to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, the Pentateuch, and the law derived from them.

Torah may also refer to:

Usage examples of "torah".

The Haredi community is at the forefront of the fight to delegitimize Reform and Conservative Judaism, just because they offer a less stringent interpretation of Torah.

Once he had surrendered the sense and punctuation of the phrases, the Kabbalist would find that the entire Torah literally merged into a combination of divine Names.

I thought that Lotte Hartmann would as soon have taught her boyfriend to recite the Torah.

I get back Dave has switched to his Pentateuchal Studies which is basically the study of the Torah.

Study of the Torah, said to be Her outer garments, can be symbolized in erotic imagery: like a Bride within Her curtained chamber, the Shekina must be courted with the heart, soul, and entire being of those who would know Her wisdom and joy.

The day was Simchas Torah, the Jewish holiday commemorating the completion of the annual cycle of reading the Torah.

Torah together, Kelman planned a special evening for Simchas Torah, 1986.

The Vedas, you must know, are the counterparts for the Hindu of the Torah for the Jew.

Vedas, you must know, are the counterparts for the Hindu of the Torah for the Jew.

Torah, achupe were ju newnbed and demanConcokhi1 1 1 trey bus Crotonahupe werac e to d, to Jewibombe We ur n.

He enjoyed the slow, thoughtful discussions of the Torah, of the application of the various laws and proscriptions to the modern day.

Torah scribes share the idea that a word should be constructed perfectly or not at all.

If a minyan was not present, the Chazzan could not repeat the Amidah, the Kaddishes could not be said, and the Torah and HafTorah could not be chanted.

When the chazzan bore the Torah round, none kissed it with greater zest.

He had to admit that the Jew had spoken well, citing scripture quoted exactly the same way in their Torah and his Holy Koran.