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Topoľčany (; before 1920; ; is a town in the Nitra Region of Slovakia. The population as of 2006 was 28,685. The town's population is nicknamed Žochári (sing. Žochár) (producers, or owners of "mosses").

The name Topoľčany was assumed to be derived from topoľ, Slovak for poplar tree. Groves of these trees were once abundant on the banks of the Nitra River. However recent studies have shown that the name is derived from the Old Slavonic word topol meaning "warm, hot", for there were hot springs in the region in early medieval times.

The Nitra river flows through a wide valley between the two mountain ranges which are visible from the town - Tribeč (east) and Považský Inovec (west).