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Tamilization is the cultural expansion of the Tamil people native to the southern part of India and the northern and easthern part of Sri Lanka.

The Tamils traditional homeland according to Sangam period sources covered the modern states Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep and southern parts of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, although ancient Tamil settlement were also found in Sri Lanka ( Sri Lankan Tamils) and Maldives ( Giravarus). However, between the 2nd century BC and the 14th century AD, Tamil trader colonies were established in many parts of West Asia, South-East Asia and Egypt apart from the islands of the Indian Ocean.

During British rule, large numbers of Tamils from the Madras Presidency were transported to Malaya, Singapore, Mauritius, Seychelles, South Africa, Central Sri Lanka, Reunion, Trinidad and Tobago, Fiji and Guyana to work as indentured labourers in sugar plantations. There was also a large mercantile class in Burma, Sri Lanka, South-East Asia and the Persian Gulf countries.