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Tālava was a Latgalian county in the northern Vidzeme and northern Latgale region of today's Latvia. It was bordered by the Latgalian principality of Jersika to the south, the Livonian counties of Metsepole and Idumeja to the west, the Estonian counties of Sakala and Ugandi to the north and the Russian Novgorod Republic to the east.

Tālava was first mentioned in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia in 1207 as the Christian county of Tholowa. Russian chronicles refer to the county of Atzele (Очела, first mentioned in 1111) which was probably the eastern part of Tālava.