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The Soyuz-FG launch vehicle is an improved version of the Soyuz-U, from the R-7 family of rockets, designed and constructed by TsSKB-Progress in Samara. It made its maiden flight on May 20, 2001, carrying a Progress M1-6 cargo spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS).

Since October 30, 2002 the Soyuz-FG has been the only vehicle used by the Russian Federal Space Agency to launch Soyuz-TMA and Soyuz-MS manned spacecraft to the ISS. All launches have been successful thus far.

Another version of the Soyuz-FG is the Soyuz-FG/Fregat with Fregat as its 3rd stage, developed and produced by Lavochkin Association in Khimki. A European- Russian company Starsem owns all rights to launches using this version. As of December 2014 there have been 10 launches of Soyuz-FG/Fregat with commercial payloads. Its maiden flight occurred on June 2, 2003.

The analog control system of this spacecraft significantly limits its capabilities, and it will eventually be replaced by the Soyuz-2 launch vehicle.

The Soyuz-FG is launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, using launch site LC-1/5 for Soyuz-FG and LC-31/6 for Soyuz-FG/Fregat.