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n. (plural of rune English)


Runes ( Proto-Norse: (runo), Old Norse: rún) are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter. The Scandinavian variants are also known as futhark or fuþark (derived from their first six letters of the alphabet: F, U, Þ, A, R, and K); the Anglo-Saxon variant is futhorc or fuþorc (due to sound changes undergone in Old English by the names of those six letters).

Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions, runestones, and their history. Runology forms a specialised branch of Germanic linguistics.

The earliest runic inscriptions date from around 150 AD. The characters were generally replaced by the Latin alphabet as the cultures that had used runes underwent Christianisation, by approximately 700 AD in central Europe and 1100 AD in northern Europe. However, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes in northern Europe. Until the early 20th century, runes were used in rural Sweden for decorative purposes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars.

The three best-known runic alphabets are the Elder Futhark (around 150–800 AD), the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (400–1100 AD), and the Younger Futhark (800–1100 AD). The Younger Futhark is divided further into the long-branch runes (also called Danish, although they were also used in Norway and Sweden); short-branch or Rök runes (also called Swedish-Norwegian, although they were also used in Denmark); and the stavlösa or Hälsinge runes ( staveless runes). The Younger Futhark developed further into the Medieval runes (1100–1500 AD), and the Dalecarlian runes (around 1500–1800 AD).

Historically, the runic alphabet is a derivation of the Old Italic scripts of antiquity, with the addition of some innovations. Which variant of the Old Italic family in particular gave rise to the runes is uncertain. Suggestions include Raetic, Venetic, Etruscan, or Old Latin as candidates. At the time, all of these scripts had the same angular letter shapes suited for epigraphy, which would become characteristic of the runes.

The process of transmission of the script is unknown. The oldest inscriptions are found in Denmark and northern Germany, not near Italy. A "West Germanic hypothesis" suggests transmission via Elbe Germanic groups, while a " Gothic hypothesis" presumes transmission via East Germanic expansion.

Runes (album)

Runes is the third studio album by British metalcore band Bury Tomorrow. It was released on 26 May 2014. The album is named after the Rune Poems and is the band's first to feature Kristan Dawson, who replaced founding member Mehdi Vismara as Bury Tomorrow's lead guitarist in 2013. It was revealed on 1 June 2014 that Runes had reached number 34 in the official UK charts and was also number 1 in the official UK Rock Chart.

Usage examples of "runes".

If they did so, the runes have either failed or they need to be reforged, reinstated .

Why, say, come to think of it, the same runes are on your hands and arms, too!

Then he sang the runes and, with his other hand, repeated them in the air.

Kleitus’s gaze went to the runes tattooed on the back of Haplo’s hand.

The gleaming white marble exteriors, decorated with runes whose meanings no one now remembers, reflect back to us the light of our torches.

Hesitantly, almost reverently, he traced the pattern of the runes whose meaning and magic are now long forgotten.

According to the map, the ancients inscribed runes on the walls that could guide travelers, but—if so—their magic is now beyond our comprehension and use.

No, if these runes are to warn us of danger, that danger existed when this map was made.

He stared at the runes tattooed on his skin, saw, for the first time, that they were glowing a very faint blue.

And he […] with a pang of terror, that the runes tattooed on his hands […] and were gone!

The ship could take such punishment, guarded as it was by its runes, but not indefinitely.

The runes on his skin began to glow a faint blue, his body’s magic reacting instinctively to reduce his temperature to a safe level.

Alfred, he noticed, was humming beneath his breath, tracing runes in the air with his long-fingered hands and shuffling his feet slightly, his body swaying to the rhythm of the Sartan magic.

Rummaging in his supplies, he found a roll of plain linen cloth and wound it carefully around his hands and wrists, covering and concealing the runes tattooed on the skin.

No sigla adorned the grim, square-jawed, cleanshaven face, no runes appeared on the palms of the hands or the fingers or the soles of his feet.