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The Collaborative International Dictionary

Rout \Rout\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Routed; p. pr. & vb. n. Routing.] To break the ranks of, as troops, and put them to flight in disorder; to put to rout.

That party . . . that charged the Scots, so totally routed and defeated their whole army, that they fied.

Syn: To defeat; discomfit; overpower; overthrow.


Etymology 1 alt. A method of finding paths from origins to destinations in a network such as the Internet, along which information can be passed. n. A method of finding paths from origins to destinations in a network such as the Internet, along which information can be passed. vb. (present participle of route English) Etymology 2

n. A channel cut in a material such as wood with a router or gouge. vb. (present participle of rout English)


Routing is the process of selecting best paths in a network. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the public switched telephone network ( circuit switching), electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology.

In packet switching networks, routing directs packet forwarding (the transit of logically addressed network packets from their source toward their ultimate destination) through intermediate nodes. Intermediate nodes are typically network hardware devices such as routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables, which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the router's memory, is very important for efficient routing. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time. Multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths.

Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices. In large networks, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging). Routing has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet. Bridging is still widely used within localized environments.

Routing (disambiguation)

Routing is the process of path selection in a network, such as a computer network or transportation network.

Routing may also refer to:

  • Route of administration, the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body
  • Routing, boring holes or grooves in wood; see router (woodworking)
  • Routing (EDA), an integrated circuit design stage in electronic design automation
Routing (electronic design automation)

In electronic design, wire routing, commonly called simply routing, is a step in the design of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and integrated circuits (ICs). It builds on a preceding step, called placement, which determines the location of each active element of an IC or component on a PCB. After placement, the routing step adds wires needed to properly connect the placed components while obeying all design rules for the IC.

The task of all routers is the same. They are given some pre-existing polygons consisting of pins (also called terminals) on cells, and optionally some pre-existing wiring called preroutes. Each of these polygons are associated with a net, usually by name or number. The primary task of the router is to create geometries such that all terminals assigned to the same net are connected, no terminals assigned to different nets are connected, and all design rules are obeyed. A router can fail by not connecting terminals that should be connected (an open), by mistakenly connecting two terminals that should not be connected (a short), or by creating a design rule violation. In addition, to correctly connect the nets, routers may also be expected to make sure the design meets timing, has no crosstalk problems, meets any metal density requirements, does not suffer from antenna effects, and so on. This long list of often conflicting objectives is what makes routing extremely difficult.

Almost every problem associated with routing is known to be intractable. The simplest routing problem, called the Steiner tree problem, of finding the shortest route for one net in one layer with no obstacles and no design rules is NP-hard if all angles are allowed and NP-complete if only horizontal and vertical wires are allowed. Variants of channel routing have also been shown to be NP-complete, as well as routing which reduces crosstalk, number of vias, and so on. Routers therefore seldom attempt to find an optimum result. Instead, almost all routing is based on heuristics which try to find a solution that is good enough.

Design rules sometimes vary considerably from layer to layer. For example, the allowed width and spacing on the lower layers may be four or more times smaller than the allowed widths and spacings on the upper layers. This introduces many additional complications not faced by routers for other applications such as printed circuit board or Multi-Chip Module design. Particular difficulties ensue if the rules are not simple multiples of each other, and when vias must traverse between layers with different rules.

Routing (hydrology)

In hydrology, routing is a technique used to predict the changes in shape of a hydrograph as water moves through a river channel or a reservoir. In flood forecasting, hydrologists may want to know how a short burst of intense rain in an area upstream of a city will change as it reaches the city. Routing can be used to determine whether the pulse of rain reaches the city as a deluge or a trickle.

Routing also can be used to predict the hydrograph shape (and thus lowland flooding potential) subsequent to multiple rainfall events in different sub-catchments of the watershed. Timing and duration of the rainfall events, as well as factors such as antecedent moisture conditions, overall watershed shape, along with subcatchment-area shapes, land slopes (topography/physiography), geology/hydrogeology (i.e. forests and aquifers can serve as giant sponges that absorb rainfall and slowly release it over subsequent weeks and months), and stream-reach lengths all play a role here. The result can be an additive effect (i.e. a large flood if each subcatchment's respective hydrograph peak arrives at the watershed mouth at the same point in time, thereby effectively causing a "stacking" of the hydrograph peaks), or a more distributed-in-time effect (i.e. a lengthy but relatively modest flood, effectively attenuated in time, as the individual subcatchment peaks arrive at the mouth of the main watershed channel in orderly succession).

Other uses of routing include reservoir and channel design, floodplain studies and watershed simulations.

If the water flow at a particular point, A, in a stream is measured over time with a flow gauge, this information can be used to create a hydrograph. A short period of intense rain, normally called a flood event, can cause a bulge in the graph, as the increased water travels down the river, reaches the flow gauge at A, and passes along it.

If another flow gauge at B, downstream of A is set up, one would expect the graph's bulge (or floodwave) to have the same shape. However, the shape of the river and flow resistance within a river (from the river bed, for example) can affect the shape of the floodwave. Oftentimes, the floodwave will be attenuated (have a reduced peak flow).

Routing techniques can be broadly classified as follows:

Usage examples of "routing".

On the other hand, they had a large force, and it would give them joy as a samurai to fight their way through, routing the enemy with a quick victory.

A copy of his report, in addition to its regular routing to MID, was sent by Johnson to the Secretary of State.

This initialing of routing envelopes is just another bit of the bureaucratic trash that trammels the ever-reorganizing department.

We have marched from Vienne to Autun, from Auxerre to Troyes, routing the Alemanni and reclaiming Gaul for Rome and the Emperor.

They then went with the 2nd Division to Okinawa and escaped without loss of men or dogs in spite of much patrolling among the cane fields and routing of Japanese from a myriad of caves.

Nereide had traversed the country in all directions, doing no harm to private property, paying for whatever they needed, treating the private Mauritians civilly, and routing all the meagre troops that the southern commander could bring against them, the attitude of the militia came more to resemble a neutrality, and a benevolent neutrality at that.

He set it on the shelf next to the bulky teleprinter, sat down, and clacked off the prefix and routing instructions, winding a small handle at the side of the machine at the end of each word.

Given the supreme importance of urination, the proper modification and routing of the urethra is the most critical aspect of reassignment surgery.

Lately some of these casualties had been found to be wearing red berets and scorpion-shaped brass pins, and from this it was known that the Cubans had sent in the Alacran Division, which had been instrumental in routing the American Forces in Miskitia.

Explain the services of separate and integrated multiprotocol routing.

Vector protocols call for each router to send its entire routing table to each of its adjacent neighbours.

Vector routing protocols are prone to routing Loops and counting to infinity.

State routing protocols are more intensive in terms of power, memory, and bandwidth required.

Instant-Replay-Video Scoreboard, disgruntled or professionally suicidal or both, started training his camera on the bedroom windows and routing the resultant multi-limbed coital images up onto the 75-meter Scoreboard screen, etc.

Either way, Killashandra's doubts of his reliability as a partner faded as he ordered the port officials about imperiously, badgering the routing agent to be certain that the man hadn't over looked a more direct flight or a more advantageous connection.