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Ravana ( IAST: Rāvaṇa; ; Sanskrit: रावण) is the mythical primary antagonist in the Hindu epic Ramayana where he is depicted as the Rakshasa (demon) king of Lanka.

Ravana is depicted and described as having ten heads and as a follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the veena, but someone who wished to overpower the devas. His ten heads represent his knowledge of the six shastras and the four Vedas. In the Ramayana, Ravana kidnaps Rama's wife Sita to exact vengeance on Rama and his brother Lakshmana for having cut off the nose of his sister Shurpanakha.

Ravana is worshipped by Hindus in some parts of India, Sri Lanka and Bali (Indonesia.) He is considered to be the most revered devotee of Shiva. Images of Ravana are seen associated with Shiva at some places. He also appears in Buddhist Mahayana text Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra.