Pomponia is the female name for the gens Pomponius of Ancient Rome. This family was one of the oldest families in Rome. Various women bearing this name lived during the Middle and Late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. The oldest known Pomponia was mother of a famous Roman general; the second and third were related to each other. The relationship between these women, if any, is not known. They descended from Pomponius, the first son of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome.
Pomponia is a genus of cicadas from Asia. A group of species previously placed in Pomponia, containing the largest cicada species found on earth, have recently been moved to Megapomponia. However, the remaining species still form a very heterogeneous group and Duffels and Hayashi (2006) mentioned that several species should probably be transferred to genera like Terpnosia and Leptosemia.