Pluti is the term for the phenomenon of overlong vowels in Sanskrit; the overlong vowels are themselves called pluta. Pluta vowels are usually noted with a numeral "3" (indicating a length of three morae), , also .
Pluta vowels are recorded a total of 3 times in the Rigveda and 15 times in the Atharvaveda, typically in cases of questioning and particularly where two options are being compared. For example:
- RV 10.129.5d "Was it above? Was it below?"
- AV 9.6.18 "Is this larger? Or this?"
The pluti attained the peak of their popularity in the Brahmana period of late Vedic Sanskrit (roughly 8th century BC), with some 40 instances in the Shatapatha Brahmana alone.
The Astadhyayi records rules for pluti in spoken language, for example 8.2.82 "[the last syllable becomes pluti] when replying to the greeting of a non-shudra".