Pleurias ( Ancient Greek Πλευρίας; ruled c. 337 – 335 BC) was an Illyrian king of the Autariatae State. In 337 BC Pleurias almost succeeded in killing Philip II of Macedon when he was on his Balkan campaigns. Pleurias took on a minor role in the Illlyrian Revolt of 335 BC in blockading Alexander the Great advances southwards.
In 337 BC, Philip's aim was to subdue the Autariatae State under Pleurias, during his Balkan campaigns. While Pleurias was engaged in a battle with Philip, he almost succeeded in killing Philip if not for a bodyguard receiving Pleurias' sword. After receiving on his body all the blows directed at Philip, the bodyguard died.
In 335 BC, Pleurias entered into an alliance with Gluacias of the Taulantii State and Cleitus of the Dardanian State for the Illyrian Revolt. Cleitus had persuaded Pleurias to attack Alexander on his march south to meet him. On the meanwhile, Glaucias and Cleitus would join forces and meet Alexander at the city of Pelion in the south. Langarus, an ally of Alexander promised him that he would deal with the Autariatae State while Alexander would advance towards Cleitus. Langarus invaded their territory and defeated Pleurias, and thus brought a set back to Illyrian Revolt from the start.
In the 5th century BC the Autariate State reached its peak of political and economic development. At the time of Pleurias' rule, the Autariatae State was in a decline due to the Celtic migrations. Pleurias's successors were followed by great hardship and by the gradual decline of the Autariatae State which eded in 310 BC with their sudden disappearance.