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Note: The surname Pigou forms part of the terms Pigou Club and Pigouvian tax, both derived from the name of the English economist Arthur Cecil Pigou.

Pigou is an English surname of Hugenot derivation.

The Pigou family originated from Amiens in France. The name was related to pique or pike, and the Pigou arms consist of three pike heads. Two sons of Lawrence Pigou of Amiens – Jacques and John - fled from persecution in France and settled with their families in England in about 1685. All branches of the Pigou family became involved in trade with India.