Padwa is a surname; it may refer to the following individuals:
- Chanoch Dov Padwa (1908–2000), Orthodox Jewish posek and rabbinic leader
- Imanuel Permenas Padwa (born 1984), Indonesian footballer
- Vladimir Padwa (1900–1981), American pianist, composer, and educator
- Gudi Padwa, a Hindu holy day
- Bali Pratipada/ Diwali Padwa: A Diwali day and is the 1st day of the new month – Kartik in the Hindu calendar. It marks the start of Hindu financial year.