Osroene, also spelled Osrohene and Osrhoene (; ) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom located in Upper Mesopotamia, which enjoyed semi-autonomy to complete independence from the years of 132 BC to AD 244. It was a Syriac-speaking kingdom.
Osroene, or Edessa, acquired independence from the collapsing Seleucid Empire through a dynasty of the nomadic Nabatean tribe called Orrhoei from 136 BC. The name Osroene derives from Osroes of Orhai, a Nabatean malka who in 120 BC wrested control of this region from the Seleucids in Syria. Most of the kings of Osroene are called Abgar or Manu who settled in urban centers. Under its Nabatean dynasties, Osroëne became increasingly influenced by Syriac- Assyrian culture and was a centre of national reaction against Hellenism. By the 5th century Edessa had become the headquarters of Syriac literature and learning. In 608 the Sāsānid Khosrow II took Osroëne, and in 638 it fell to the Muslims through the Muslim conquest of Persia.
The kingdom's area, the upper course of the Euphrates, became a traditional battleground for the powers that ruled Asia Minor, Persia, Syria, and Armenia. After the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire in the 1st century BC Rome and Parthia divided its territory between themselves. At this time Osrhoene lay within Parthian suzerainty. However, the Romans later made several attempts to recover the region.
Osroene, also spelled Osrohene and Osrhoene (; was a Roman province which existed for nearly 400 years after it was formed after the absorption of the Kingdom of Osroene in 244 CE and served as a frontier province a against the Sassanid empires, until the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century.