Olmeca is the only known New World bamboo having large fleshy fruits. It also has rhizomes with long necks and very open clumps.
The genus is named for the Olmec peoples of southern Mexico, who thrived in southern Mexico in the first millennium BCE.Species
- O. clarkiae (Davidse & R.W.Pohl) Ruiz-Sanchez, Sosa & Mejía-Saulés - Chiapas, Honduras
- O. fulgor (Soderstr.) Ruiz-Sanchez - Oaxaca
- O. recta Soderstr. - Veracruz
- O. reflexa Soderstr. - Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas
- O. zapotecorum Ruiz-Sanchez, Sosa & Mejía-Saulés - Oaxaca