Montubio are an indigenous mestizo people of coastal Ecuador. The Montubio were recognized by the government in the spring of 2001 after protests that included protracted hunger strikes. The Council for the Development of the Montubio People of the Ecuadorian Coast and Subtropical Zones of the Littoral Region (CODEPMOC) was granted official status and government funding. The Montubio are known for their ranching activities, rodeos, machetes and distinctive attire (including panama hats). In Ecuadorian literature the Montubios have been written about "as a stock coastal character" by Alfredo Parez Diezcanceco and the "Guayaquil Group": Demetrio Aguilera Malta, Enrique Gil Gilberto, and Joaquin Gallegos Lara. They have also been recorded by Jenny Estrada in El Montubio – un forjador de identidad (1996), Teodoro Crespo in El Montuvio: Centro de la Colonización (1959, 2nd Edition), and by Jose de la Cuadra in El Montuvio Ecuatoriano (1937).