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Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
mitochondrion

singular of mitochondria.

Wiktionary
mitochondrion

n. (context cytology English) A spherical or ovoid organelle found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, contains genetic material separate from that of the host; it is responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy in the form of ATP.

WordNet
mitochondrion
  1. n. an organelle containing enzymes responsible for producing energy [syn: chondriosome]

  2. [also: mitochondria (pl)]

Wikipedia
Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them (e.g. Red blood cells). A number of organisms have reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one eukaryote is known to have completely lost its mitochondria. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek , , i.e. "thread", and , , i.e. "granule" or "grain-like". Mitochondria have been described as "the powerhouse of the cell" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.

Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm in diameter but vary considerably in size and structure. Unless specifically stained, they are not visible. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and cell death, as well as maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondrial biogenesis is in turn temporally coordinated with these cellular processes. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure and autism.

The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely by organism, tissue, and cell type. For instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria, whereas liver cells can have more than 2000. The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Mitochondrial proteins vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans, 615 distinct types of protein have been identified from cardiac mitochondria, whereas in rats, 940 proteins have been reported. The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated. Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome that shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.

Mitochondrion (band)

Mitochondrion is a Canadian death metal band from Victoria, British Columbia, formed in 2003. The band has undergone some line-up changes, but since 2006 Mitochondrion was solidified as a power trio with Shawn Haché (guitar, vocals), Nick Yanchuk (guitar, vocals, bass) and Karl Godard (drums, keyboards). With this line-up Mitochondrion has recorded two full-length studio albums, the self-released Archaeaeon (2008) and Parasignosis (2011), which was released through Profound Lore Records.

According to music critics, "What makes Mitochondrion stand out is their ability to bring order to chaos. [...] It is a trait they share with Deathspell Omega, who craft a dizzying amount of sounds and influences into something palpably evil and eminently listenable. When most other bands try this, it sounds like they are toying with forces they do not understand." The musicianship on Parasignosis has been defined by Decibel magazine as a "dense, not-so-easily-digestible labyrinth of frightening mindfuckery." While Parasignosis itself was praised as a "mind-blowing, highly individual album."

Usage examples of "mitochondrion".

Virtually all the food and oxygen you take into your body are delivered, after processing, to the mitochondria, where they are converted into a molecule called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.

Actually, the suggestion that chloroplasts and mitochondria might be endosymbionts was made as long ago as 1885, but one might expect, nevertheless, that confirmation of the suggestion would have sent the investigators out into the streets, hallooing.

Close up, the machinery looked almost organic -- it had that evolved complexity, unplanned and serendipitous, that you can see in electron micrographs of cells and in flowcharts of mitochondria.

The ribosomes inside the mitochondria are similar to bacterial ribosomes, and different from animal ribosomes.

At thirty-one he won the Nobel Prize in medicine for his work on genetically modified excitotoxins in neural mitochondria.

Lubin gave thanks for cells forcibly overcrowded with mitochondria, for trimeric antibodies, for macrophage and lymphokine and fibroblast production cranked up to twice the mammalian norm.

Still, since there were thousands of mitochondria in each cell, and only one nucleus, it was much easier to recover mitochondrial rather than nuclear DNA from ancient specimens.

Virtually all the food and oxygen you take into your body are delivered, after processing, to the mitochondria, where they are converted into a molecule called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.

Close up, the machinery looked almost organic -- it had that evolved complexity, unplanned and serendipitous, that you can see in electron micrographs of cells and in flowcharts of mitochondria.

Show us your mitochondria, that we may sculpt our asteroid belt to encode its patterns.

She was especially intrigued by the paper on the theory of biomimetic systems, the idea of constructing microscopic machines by imitating already existing biological models, such as mitochondria and viruses.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA, which replicates and propagates itself entirely independently of the main DNA in the chromosomes of the nucleus.

Maybe those ciliated protozoa that had a variant genetic code were descended from some cilia who had been in symbiosis with other cells in the past, developing genetic-code variations for the same safety-net reasons mitochondria had but, unlike the cilia we still retained, had subsequently broken off the symbiosis and returned to stand-alone life.

She was leaning over the scanning probe microscope, which showed an image of a cell mitochondrion and the two conformational states of its inner membrane.

Her heart beat in frightened counterpoint to the rhythm of the mitochondrion.