The Collaborative International Dictionary
Mand \Mand\, n. A demand. [Obs.] See Demand.
Etymology 1 n. (context psychology English) A verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is therefore under the functional control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation. vb. (context psychology English) To produce a mand (verbal operant). Etymology 2
n. (context obsolete English) A demand.
Mand is a term that B.F. Skinner used to describe a verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is therefore under the functional control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation. One cannot determine, based on form alone, whether a response is a mand; it is necessary to know the kinds of variables controlling a response in order to identify a verbal operant. A mand is sometimes said to "specify its reinforcement" although this is not always the case. Skinner introduced the mand as one of six primary verbal operants in his 1957 work, Verbal Behavior.
Chapter three of Skinner's work, Verbal Behavior, discusses a functional relationship called the mand. A mand is a form of verbal behavior that is controlled by deprivation, satiation, or what is now called motivating operations (MO), as well as a controlling history. An example of this would be asking for water when one is water deprived ("thirsty"). It is tempting to say that a mand describes its reinforcer, which it sometimes does. But many mands have no correspondence to the reinforcer. For example, a loud knock may be a mand "open the door" and a servant may be called by a hand clap as much as a child might "ask for milk."
Mands differ from other verbal operants in that they primarily benefit the speaker, whereas other verbal operants function primarily for the benefit of the listener. This is not to say that mands function exclusively in favor of the speaker, however; Skinner gives the example of the advice, "Go west!" as having the potential to yield consequences which will be reinforcing to both speaker and listener. When warnings such as "Look out!" are heeded, the listener may avoid aversive stimulation.
The Lamarre & Holland (1985) study on mands would be one example of a research study in this area.
Mand or Maand is the famous style of singing in Rajasthan. It is well recognized in classical circles and this style is very important in folk songs of Rajasthan. This is neither accepted as a full-fledged Raga nor is it reckoned among the freely rendered folk songs. It is very near the Thumri or the Ghazal.
It is the exclusive contribution of Rajasthani folklore to the classical music of India. It is the Rajasthan’s most sophisticated style of folk music and is most exclusive contribution to the classical music of India.
Some famous Mand singers are: Allah Jilai Bai from Bikaner (awarded by Padma Shri-1982 and Sangeet Natak Akademi Award-1988 in Folk Music), Mangi Bai arya from Udaipur (awarded by Sangeet Natak Akademi Award-2008 in Folk Music), and Gavari Bai (Also Known as Gavri Devi) from Jodhpur (awarded by Sangeet Natak Akademi Award-1975-76 and 1986 in Folk Music).
The famous Rajasthani song Kesariya Balam is in the Mand style.
Mand is a small village of Mandla district, Madhya Pradesh, India. This village is 31.6 km from main city Mandla and in National Highway 12A ( Jabalpur- Raipur NH).
Mand , is a town located in Kech Makran Kech District southern Balochistan, a province of Pakistan.
Usage examples of "mand".
After the severest reprimand, he did not tremble and look at the floor but instead looked steadily at her, causing uneasy doubts to invade her mind.
George Willard shook his head and a note of command came into his voice.
Haar verbazingwekkende handen hadden ingewikkelde patronen geweven in de op een mand lijkende stoel van schaafstro.
Het lukte hem het ding opmerkelijk goed op te vouwen voordat hij het op de stapel in de mand smeet.
Alsof Sandoz Johns gedachten had gelezen, draaide hij zich met een scheef grijnsje om, boog zich voorover om de mand te pakken en bleef toen op commentaar staan wachten.
Sandoz sleepte de mand naar de hordeur, die hij met zijn rug openduwde.
Emilio zette de mand neer en wachtte tot John zich bij hem had gevoegd.
Emilio maakte nog een wasmachine open en begon handdoeken in de mand te doen met het gevoel dat hij alles weer meester was.
Verontwaardigd liep hij terug naar de deur en droeg de mand naar de waslijn.
Uiteindelijk liet hij een handdoek in de mand vallen, liep een paar stappen achteruit en ging op het stenen muurtje zitten, opeens uitgeput.
Spock shlfted from the library station and took over the com- mand chair.
I am assuming com- mand of the Enterprise in the absence of senior officers Kirk, Spock, and McCoy.
Major in corn mand of the rear division shouted to the last two corn panies.
Will Skeat himself, his one-time com- mander and friend, was stranded in Caen, and Thomas had no knowledge whether Will still lived or, if he did, whether he could speak or understand or even walk.
Mander had suggested a dog-pack so Lyka could take some of the load, but Arin had vetoed it.