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Mahato or Mahto is a surname used by several castes and communities in India and Nepal.

In the Oraon tribal society, a mahato referred to the secular chief of a village, who held administrative authority along with pahan, the religious priest. In the zamindari villages, "Mahto" was a caste-agnostic title given to the headman of a village ward. The mahto's duties were to maintain peace in his area, and collect revenue for the zamindar (feudal landlord).

Now, "Mahto" is used as a surname by several communities. The castes that use Mahto or Mahato as a surname, clan name or title include: