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Khrushchevism was a form of Marxism-Leninism which consisted of the theories and policies of Nikita Khrushchev and his administration in the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong recognized "Khrushchevism" as a distinct ideology, initially from a positive perspective, though later the term was used by the Chinese Communists as a term of derision against the politics of the Soviet Union.

Khrushchevism involves the rejection of Stalinism and particularly represents a movement away from Stalinist politics, including advocating a more liberal tolerance of some cultural dissent and deviance, a more welcoming international relations policy and attitude towards foreigners, and a repudiation of Stalinist arbitrariness and terror tactics. Khrushchevism was not only a phenomenon in the Soviet Union; Khrushchevism was initially admired in China and Mao Zedong sought to model the Chinese Marxist-Leninist state upon principles developed by Khrushchevism; however, disputes with the Soviet Union later ended friendly relations between Mao and Khrushchev.