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Kalpana is a Sanskrit word that means "creativity" and "imagination" in Hindi, Telugu, Marathi and Nepali. It is also a popular female Hindu name and Hindi for chimera. It may also refer to:

  • Kalpana (imagination), a Vedantic view
  • Kalpana (supercomputer), at NASA's Ames Research Center
  • Kalpana (company), inventor of the first Ethernet network switch
  • Kalpana-1, an Indian meteorological satellite
Kalpana (supercomputer)

Kalpana was a supercomputer at NASA Ames Research Center operated by the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division and named in honor of astronaut Kalpana Chawla, who was killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster and had worked as an engineer at Ames Research Center prior to joining the Space Shuttle program. It was built in late 2003 and dedicated on May 12, 2004.

Kalpana was the world's first single-system image (SSI) Linux supercomputer, based on SGI's Altix 3000 architecture and 512 Intel Itanium 2 processors. It was originally built in a joint effort by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Ames Research Center (AMC), and Goddard Space Flight Center to perform high-res ocean analysis with the ECCO (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean) Consortium model. The supercomputer was "used to develop substantially more capable simulation models to better assess the evolution and behavior of the Earth's climate system," said NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for Earth Science, Ghassem Asrar in 2004.

It served as one of several testbed systems NASA purchased to determine what architecture to proceed with for new supercomputing projects and lead to the purchase and construction of the Columbia supercomputer, named in honor of the STS-107 crew lost in 2003. In July 2004 the Kalpana system was integrated, as the first node, into the 20-node supercomputer.

Kalpana (company)

Kalpana, a computer-networking equipment manufacturer located in Silicon Valley, operated during the 1980s and 1990s. Its co-founders, Vinod Bhardwaj, an entrepreneur of Indian origin, and Larry Blair named the company after Bhardwaj's wife, Kalpana, whose name means "imagination" in Sanskrit. Charles Giancarlo was Kalpana's Vice President of Products and Corporate Development, became its General Manager, and went on to significant roles at Cisco Systems and Silver Lake Partners.

In 1989 and 1990, Kalpana introduced the first multiport Ethernet switch, its seven-port EtherSwitch. The invention of Ethernet switching made Ethernet networks faster, cheaper, and easier to manage. Multi-port network switches became common, gradually replacing Ethernet hubs for almost all applications, and enabled an easy transition to 100-megabit Fast Ethernet and later Gigabit Ethernet. Kalpana also invented EtherChannel, which provides higher inter-switch bandwidth by running several links in parallel. This innovation, more generally called link aggregation, was also widely adopted throughout the industry.

Cisco Systems acquired Kalpana in 1994.

Kalpana (Malayalam actress)

Kalpana Priyadarshini (13 October 1965 – 25 January 2016), known mononymously as Kalpana, was an Indian film actress best known for her work in South Indian films, primarily Malayalam and Tamil films. Kalpana has acted in over 300 films in various South Indian languages.

Kalpana started off her career as a child artist in the late-1970s. Although she came into the industry with the intention of being a lead actress, she turned out to be popular for her comic roles among the audiences. At the 60th National Film Awards, she won the award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance in Thanichalla Njan (2012).

Kalpana (TV series)

Kalpana is an Indian television series of DD National channel, based on the story of a girl who supports her family, especially her drunkard father through her talent of singing. The series airs every Monday at 9pm IST. Besides, the series is noted as one of the popular television shows of Doordarshan network, and has received 4.22 TVR rating from its third episode.

Kalpana (1970 film)

Kalpana is a 1970 Indian Malayalam film, directed by KS Sethumadhavan and produced by . The film stars Prem Nazir, Sathyan, Sheela and Sheela in lead roles. The film had musical score by V. Dakshinamoorthy.

Kalpana (1960 film)

Kalpana is a 1960 Bollywood film starring Ashok Kumar, Padmini etc.

Kalpana (Kannada actress)
For the other given names see Kalpana

Kalpana (; 8 July 1943 – 12 May 1979), born Sharat Lata was a Kannada film actress. She was affectionately referred to as Minugu Taare ("A Shining Star") among the film fraternity. She is widely recognised as one of the greatest actresses of Kannada cinema who enjoyed both fan following and critical acclaimations showering upon her film after films. She made her screen debut as a lead actress in the 1963 released Saaku Magalu directed by veteran B.R. Pantulu. During a career that spanned from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, Kalpana appeared in numerous commercially successful as well as critically appreciated films, many of which featured her alongside actor Rajkumar. She worked in few Tamil, Tulu and Telugu films as well. Majority of her successful films were incidentally female centric that gave ample scope for her performances.

One of her best-known roles was that of 'Kaveri' in the Multi-awarded film Sharapanjara released in 1971, a performance that won her Karnataka State Film Award for Best Actress for that year. Her portrayal of the highly spirited and complex role who fights her mental trauma won her the largest fan following ever for a Kannada actress. Her association with the veteran film maker Puttanna Kanagal both professionally and personally became the talk of the town back in the 1970s. They both went on to work successfully in many commercially and critically successful films until they fell apart with each other.

Kalpana committed suicide and met with her death on 12 May 1979 after her alleged failed romance. Her career was in decline at the time she died and film based on her life - Abhinetri_(2015_film) was released

Kalpana (1948 film)

Kalpana (English title: Imagination) is a Hindi film featuring a dance-drama, written and directed by noted dancer, Uday Shankar, in 1948. It is his only film. The story revolves around a young dancer’s dream of setting up a dance academy, a reflection Shankar's own academy, which he founded at Almora. It starred Uday Shankar and his wife Amala Shankar as leads and 17-year-old actress Padmini making her screen debut.

Kalpana was the first film to present an Indian classical dancer in the leading role, and was entirely shot as a dance ballet and a fantasy.

It was shown at the International Film Festival of India ( IFFI-Goa) (2008), as a part of the section ‘Treasures from NFAI’ ( National Film Archive of India) with other "rare gems" from the archives.

Kalpana (2012 film)

Kalpana is a 2012 Kannada comedy horror film that stars Upendra, Saikumar and Lakshmi Rai in the lead roles. Film maker Rama Narayanan directed and produced this movie under his banner Sri Thenaandal Films. The film is a remake of the 2011 Tamil film Kanchana. Saikumar reprises the role of a transgender Kalpana, originally played by Sarath Kumar in the Tamil and Telugu versions. Shruti and Umashri play supporting roles originally played by Devadarshini and Kovai Sarala.

The film was released across Karnataka on 28 September 2012 and opened to positive response from critics and audiences. The performances of Sai Kumar and Upendra have been critically acclaimed. The film did well at the box office and was a 'Super Hit' in Mysore, Northern Karnataka, Chitradurga, Bellary districts, while a 'Hit' in other parts of Karnataka. Kalpana was the Sixth Highest Grossing Kannada film of 2012. Upendra won the Udaya Film Award for Best Male Actor for his performance in the film.

A sequel to the film is being made and titled as Kalpana 2 which is a remake of Tamil film Kanchana 2.

Kalpana (imagination)

Kalpanā ( Sanskrit: कल्पना) is derived from the root - kalpanama + ना, and means – 'fixing', 'settlement', 'making', 'performing', 'doing', 'forming', 'arranging', 'decorating', 'ornamenting', 'forgery', 'a contrivance', 'device'. and also means – 'assuming anything to be real', 'fictional'.

Suresvaracharya in his Taittirīyavārttika (commentary on Śankāra's work on the Taittirīya Upanişad) (II.297) has used the term kalpanā to mean – 'inferior conception'. Vishnu Purana (VI.vii.90) and Naradiya Purana (lxvii.70) define kalpanā as a two-termed relation which is a distinction between the contemplation and the object-to-be-contemplated.

Badarayana has used the word kalpanā only once in his composition, Brahma Sutras, but while translating Sri Govinda Bhāshya of Baladeva Vidyabhushana, a commentary on Vedānta sutras, this word has been translated by Srisa Chandra Vasu to mean – 'the creative power of thought, formation, creation (and not imagination) ', which meaning is in the context of explaining Pradhana purported to have been referred to by the word - ajā (birthless entity) occurring in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (IV.5). Badarayana states:-

कल्पनोपदेशाच च, मध्वादिवदविरोधः | "Because it is taught that Pradhana is the creation of the Lord, so there is no contradiction in calling her both created and uncreated, as in the case of honey (a reference to Madhu-vidya)."

Roer in his translation of the commentary of Shankara on Brihadaranyaka Upanishad has translated the word kalpanā as 'fictitious view', and '' upadhi '', as 'fictitious attribute'. Shankara in his Brahma Sutra Bhāsya has interpreted this sutra as follows:-

"And since this is an instruction in the form of an imagery, just as in the case of honey etc., therefore there is no incongruity." (Translated by Swami Gambhirananda)

explaining that the word ajā neither indicates the form of a she-goat nor has it been used in the derivative sense of that which is unborn; what is said by the Shvetashvatara Upanishad is as an instruction about the material source of all things – moving and immobile, using a form of imagery (kalpanā) - the analogy to a she-goat.

Dignāga in his Pramāna-samuccya, tells us that amongst '' pratyaksha '' ('perception') that has the particular for the object and '' anumāna '' ('inference') that has only the universal cognisance, the former ('perception') is free from kalpanā or 'conceptual construction'. Katha Upanishad tells us that virtual objects exist only during kalpanā-kāla i.e. during the period of imagination, owing to '' avidyā ''. And, according to Patanjali, kalpanā ('fancy') is more subjective than illusion and hallucination.

Man is able to think because he has a perceiving and arranging '' manas '' ('mind') which self-illuminated gives him '' chetnā '' ('consciousness') and the faculties of '' pratyaksha '' ('perception'), '' chintā '' ('thought'), kalpanā ('imagination'), '' prayatna '' ('volition') and '' chaitanya '' ('higher sentience and intelligence'). The Vedic thinkers held the view that the universe is merely an idea, a kalpanā ('phantasm') or projection of the mind of the creator; even the experience of birth and death by the Jiva is a kalpanā ('hallucination') created by ignorance. Mental kalpanā is false superimposition on account of ignorance. However, the '' siddha '', exclusively intent on attaining '' yoga '' with own self, and self-reliant, gains powers arising spontaneously as devoid of any ruse or ploy (kalpanā).