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In mathematics, an H-space, or a topological unital magma, is a topological spaceX (generally assumed to be connected) together with a continuous map μ : X × XX with an identity elemente so that μ(e, x) = μ(x, e) = x for all x in X. Alternatively, the maps μ(e, x) and μ(x, e) are sometimes only required to be homotopic to the identity (in this case e is called homotopy identity), sometimes through basepoint preserving maps. These three definitions are in fact equivalent for H-spaces that are CW complexes. Every topological group is an H-space; however, in the general case, as compared to a topological group, H-spaces may lack associativity and inverses.