Gusev is a crater on the planet Mars and is located at . The crater is about 166 kilometers in diameter and formed approximately three to four billion years ago. It was named after Russian astronomer Matvei Gusev (1826–1866) in 1976.
A channel system named Ma'adim Vallis drains into it that probably carried liquid water, or water and ice, at some point in Mars' past. The crater appears to be an old crater lake bed, filled with sediments up to 3000 feet thick. Some exposed outcrops appear to show faint layering, and some researchers also believe that landforms visible in images of the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis where it enters Gusev resemble landforms seen in some terrestrial river deltas. Deltas of this nature can take tens or hundreds of thousands of years to form on Earth, suggesting that the water flows may have lasted for long periods. Orbital images indicate that there may once have been a very large lake near the source of Ma'adim Vallis that could have provided the source of this water. It is not known whether this flow was slow and continuous, punctuated by sporadic large outbursts, or some combination of these patterns.
More recently, satellite images showed the trails of dust devils on Gusev's floor. The Spirit rover later photographed dust devils from the ground, and likely owes much of its longevity to dust devils cleaning its solar panels.
On January 3, 2004, Gusev was the landing site of the first of NASA's two Mars Exploration Rovers, named Spirit. It is hoped that the numerous smaller and more recent craters in this region will have exposed sedimentary material from early eras, although at first the region proved disappointing in its lack of available bedrock for study on the flat lava plains of the crater, Spirit's landing site. It eventually arrived at the Columbia Hills, however, and rocks examined in that region show that the Columbia Hills did have small amounts of briny (salty) water interacting with them in ancient times, though nowhere near as much as Meridiani Planum, the landing area for Spirit's twin, Opportunity. However, in 2009, Spirit became stuck in the soil of the region, and in 2010 went offline after a harsh Martian winter. It is also considered a potential landing site for the Mars 2020 rover.
Gusev (masculine) or Guseva (feminine) may refer to:
- Gusev (surname) (Guseva), Russian surname
- Gusev (inhabited locality) (or Guseva), several inhabited localities in Russia
- Gusev crater (Russia), impact crater in Rostov Oblast, Russia
- Gusev (Martian crater), martian crater
- "Gusev" , a short story by Anton Chekhov
Gusev (; masculine) or Guseva (; feminine) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
Gusev , or Guseva (feminine; Гусева), is a Russian surname, derived from the word "гусь" (goose). Husiev / Husieva is Ukrainian adaptation of the name.
Notable people with the surname include:
- Aleksandr Gusev (field hockey) (born 1955), former field hockey player from the Soviet Union
- Aleksandr Gusev (ice hockey) (born 1947), former Soviet ice hockey player and Olympic champion
- Alexandr Vladimirovich Gussev or Gusev (1917–1999), Russian parasitologist, specialist of monogeneans
- Alexey Gusev (1945–2001), Soviet naval officer and Hero of the Soviet Union
- Aleksei Lvovich Gusev (b. 1988), Russian footballer
- Andrei Gusev (b. 1952), Russian writer and journalist
- Dmitry Gusev (1894–1957), Soviet general and Hero of the Soviet Union
- Dmitry Sergeyevich Gusev (1915-1987), Soviet army officer and Hero of the Soviet Union
- Ekaterina Guseva (b. 1976), popular Russian actress
- Ivan Gusev (1901–1976), Soviet general and Hero of the Soviet Union
- Khioniya Guseva Russian prostitute famous for attempting to murder Grigori Rasputin
- Klara Guseva (b. 1937), former Soviet speed skater
- Matvey Gusev (1826–1866), Russian astronomer
- Maksim Gusev (b. 1994), Russian footballer
- Maksim Gusev (officer) (1917–?), Soviet army officer and Hero of the Soviet Union
- Natalya Guseva (born 1972), Soviet actress
- Natalia Vladimirovna Guseva (b. 1982), Russian biathlete
- Natalia Evgenievna Guseva (b. 1972), Soviet actress
- Nikolay Ivanovich Gusev (1897–1962), Soviet general
- Nikolay Nicolaevich Gusev (critic) (1882–1967), Soviet literary critic and author of books about Tolstoy
- Nikolay Nikolaevich Gusev (chess player) (b. 1922), Soviet chess master
- Nikolay Gusev (major) (1918–1945), Soviet army officer and Hero of the Soviet Union
- Oleh Husiev (b. 1983), Ukrainian footballer
- Oleg Andreyevich Gusev (b. 1964), Russian entrepreneur
- Pyotr Gusev (1904–1987), Soviet ballet dancer, choreographer and teacher
- Rolan Gusev (b. 1977), Russian footballer
- Sergei Gusev (b. 1975), Russian ice hockey player
- Serhiy Husiev, Ukrainian football player
(1874–1933), Russian/Soviet statesman and politician
- Vasily Gusev (1925–?), Soviet soldier and Hero of the Soviet Union
- Vladimir Gusev (b. 1982), Russian professional road racing cyclist
- Vladimir Gusev (ice hockey), Russian professional ice hockey player
- Viktor Gusev (1906–1944), Soviet song-writer