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Geragogy is a theory which argues that older adults are sufficiently different that they warrant a separate educational theory. The term "eldergogy" has also been used. Some critics have noted that “one should not expect from geragogy some comprehensive educational theory for older adult learners, but only an awareness of and sensitivity towards gerontological issues”.

Key distinctions between traditional pedagogy and geragogy include offering "opportunities for older adult learners to set the curriculum themselves and to learn through activities of personal relevance" as well as recognition of age-related issues which may affect learning, such as reduced sensory perception, limited motor capabilities and changes in cognitive processes, especially memory.

Collaborative peer learning, as employed in the University of the Third Age, is a common element within geragogic settings.