##### Wiktionary

**extended euclidean algorithm**

n. An extension to the Euclidean algorithm, which computes the coefficients of Bézout's identity in addition to the greatest common divisor of two integers.

##### Wikipedia

**Extended Euclidean algorithm**

In arithmetic and computer programming, the **extended Euclidean algorithm** is an extension to the Euclidean algorithm, which computes, besides the greatest common divisor of integers *a* and *b*, the coefficients of Bézout's identity, that is integers *x* and *y* such that

*a*

*x*+

*b*

*y*= gcd(

*a*,

*b*).

It allows one to compute also, with almost no extra cost, the quotients of *a* and *b* by their greatest common divisor.

** Extended Euclidean algorithm** also refers to a very similar algorithm for computing the polynomial greatest common divisor and the coefficients of Bézout's identity of two univariate polynomials.

The extended Euclidean algorithm is particularly useful when *a* and *b* are coprime, since *x* is the modular multiplicative inverse of *a* modulo *b*, and *y* is the modular multiplicative inverse of *b* modulo *a*. Similarly, the polynomial extended Euclidean algorithm allows one to compute the multiplicative inverse in algebraic field extensions and, in particular in finite fields of non prime order. It follows that both extended Euclidean algorithms are widely used in cryptography. In particular, the computation of the modular multiplicative inverse is an essential step in RSA public-key encryption method.