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Epidaurus or Epidauros was an ancient Greek colony founded sometime in the 6th century BC, renamed to Epidaurum during Roman rule in 228 BC, when it was part of the province of Illyricum, later Dalmatia. It is located at the modern-day Cavtat in Croatia, 15 km (9 mi) south of Dubrovnik.

During the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey the city was besieged by M. Octavius but saved by the arrival of the consul Publius Vatinius.

The city was destroyed by Avars and Slavic invaders in the 7th century. Refugees from Epidaurus fled to the nearby island Laas or Laus (meaning "stone" in Greek, from which Ragusa (through rhotacism) was founded, which over time evolved into Dubrovnik.

Several Roman inscriptions are found amongst its ruins: the sepulchre of P. Cornelius Dolabella, who was the consul under Augustus and governor of Illyricum, and the remains of an aqueduct.

In the Middle Ages, the town of Cavtat (Ragusa-Vecchia) was established in the same area.