Compson is a surname. Notable people with the name include:
- Betty Compson (1897–1974), American actress
- Hartwell B. Compson (1842–1905), American military officer
It is also the surname of the fictional Compson family, including Caddy Compson and Quentin Compson, in the works of William Faulkner, as well as Ladonna Compson in the television show Arthur.