Crossword clues for chemotherapy
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
The Collaborative International Dictionary
chemotherapy \chemotherapy\ n. the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness); -- also used especially in reference to the use of chemicals to treat cancer.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
n. 1 (context medicine English) Any chemical treatment intended to be therapeutic with respect to a disease state. 2 (context oncology most common usage English) chemical treatment to kill or halt the replication and/or spread of cancerous cells in a patient.
n. the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
Chemotherapy: International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Chemotherapy is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering antimicrobial chemotherapy, published by Karger Publishers. The journal was established in 1960 and was originally named Chemotherapia, obtaining its current name in 1968. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 1.288.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs ( chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of medical oncology (the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer).
By common usage, the term chemotherapy has come to connote the use of rather non-specific intracellular poisons, especially related to inhibiting the process of cell division known as mitosis, and generally excludes agents that more selectively block extracellular growth signals (i.e. blockers of signal transduction). For purely historical reasons, the blockade of growth promoting signals coming from classic endocrine hormones (primarily estrogens for breast cancer and androgens for prostate cancer) is known as hormonal therapy, while the blockade of other growth promoting influences (especially those associated with receptor tyrosine kinases) is known as targeted therapy.
Importantly, the use of drugs (whether chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or targeted therapy) constitutes "systemic therapy" for cancer in that they are introduced into the blood stream and are therefore in principle able to address cancer at any anatomic location in the body. Systemic therapy is often used in conjunction with other modalities that constitute "local therapy" (i.e. treatments whose efficacy is confined to the anatomic area where they are applied) for cancer such as radiation therapy, surgery, and/or hyperthermia therapy.
Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary widely in their susceptibility to these agents. To a large extent, chemotherapy can be thought of as a way to damage or stress cells, which may then lead to cell death if apoptosis is initiated. Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract, and hair follicles. This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss). Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). These include Rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Multiple sclerosis, Vasculitis, and many others.
Usage examples of "chemotherapy".
Before I entered the telomod program, my old doctors tried multiple drug antimetabolite chemotherapy.
Some cancers require surgery, while others are best treated with radiation, chemotherapy, or some combination of all of them.
Most chemotherapy works by killing the rapidly growing cancers as they try to grow, but this also hurts normal cells.
It tended to strike men between the ages of 18 and 25 and was considered very treatable as cancers go, thanks to advances in chemotherapy, but early diagnosis and intervention were key.
We gave him fluids intravenously, and the doctors did some more tests and gave him some more chemotherapy.
Some doctors become really upset when patients refuse radiation or chemotherapy.
The doctors were shooting a substance called 5FU chemotherapy up to Mrs.
Ben, who by that time had an experimental chemotherapy pump affixed to his belt through which medication flowed throughout the day, persuaded Joel, then twentyeight, to take one class at the nearby State University of New York at Farmingdale.
On the Monday the few Spanish who were about walked with the shuffling steps of chemotherapy patients, the plaza was still littered with fragments of exploded rocket and other bits of firework.
Barbs was diagnosed by then, and the chemotherapy seemed to have worked, though she still felt sick.
Bo Michaels was completely out of her system, like waiting for the last molecule of chemotherapy to clear the bloodstream before feeling whole again.
Then, what the hell, throw in a little Chemotherapy if needed and likely at this point die anyway in a couple of years.
The diagnosis was simply that Chemotherapy could extend his life at significant toxic reaction and discomfort, but that is all that could be done.
M: In any case, he has opted to take chemotherapy and it has extended his life.
After more than ten years of trying to deal with politics and politicians in a professional manner, I have finally come to the harsh understanding that there is no way at all -- not even for a doctor of chemotherapy with total access to the whole spectrum of legal and illegal drugs, the physical constitution of a mule shark and a brain as rare and sharp and original as the Sloat diamond -- to function as a political journalist without abandoning the whole concept of a decent breakfast.